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      Chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with higher prevalence and severity of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD

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          Abstract

          Background and purpose

          Bronchiectasis revealed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the causes and risk factors remain to be determined. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is closely associated with bronchiectasis or COPD, but whether it is associated with comorbid bronchiectasis in COPD (COPD-Bx) is unknown.

          Patients and methods

          Patients with stable COPD were enrolled consecutively and evaluated for the presence of CRS by questionnaire and paranasal sinus computed tomography. The presence and severity of bronchiectasis on lung HRCT were evaluated by the Smith and severity scores. COPD symptoms were evaluated by COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and Modified British Medical Research Council Questionnaire. The sputum cell differentials and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-5, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 were measured.

          Results

          We enrolled 136 patients with stable COPD, of which 66 (48.5%) were diagnosed with CRS according to the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP 3OS) criteria. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was 57.6% in patients with CRS, but 37.1% in those without CRS ( P=0.017). COPD-Bx patients with CRS showed a significantly higher severity score of bronchiectasis than those without CRS ( P=0.034). COPD patients with CRS had a higher percentage of eosinophils, higher levels of IL-8, IL-6, and MMP-9 in sputum as compared to those without CRS. In COPD-Bx patients with CRS, the percentage of eosinophils and the levels of IL-6 and MMP-9 in sputum were increased as compared to those without CRS. In all the subjects, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 correlated with CAT score ( r=0.315, P<0.01) and in COPD patients with CRS, Lund–MacKay scores correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (% pred) ( r=−0.251, P<0.05).

          Conclusions

          CRS was associated with COPD-Bx and this was probably due to increased airway inflammation.

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          Most cited references 28

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          EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists

          The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed. This executive summary for otorhinolaryngologists focuses on the most important changes and issues for otorhinolaryngologists. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.
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            Staging in rhinosinusitus.

             I MacKay,  V Lund (1993)
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              Psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20).

              A valid measure of rhinosinusitis health status and quality of life is required for the complete assessment of treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), a disease-specific, health-related quality-of-life measure for rhinosinusitis. The SNOT-20 is a modification of the 31-Item Rhinosinusitis Outcome Measure, and it contains 20 nose, sinus, and general items. To complete the instrument, patients indicate how much they are affected in each area and identify the 5 most important items. The SNOT-20 was completed by 102, 72, and 46 patients at the initial visit and at 6 months and 1 year after treatment commencement, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.9; test-retest scores were highly correlated (r = 0.9). Patients who were more affected had greater SNOT-20 scores (P < 0.002), and patients who had improved had greater change scores (P < 0.04). Items identified as important had greater scores (P < 0.0001) and showed greater change scores (P < 0.0002). The SNOT-20 is a valid outcome measure for patients with rhinosinusitis; it describes the health burden and is sensitive to clinical change.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                20 February 2017
                : 12
                : 655-662
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yongchang Sun, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaominxiang, Dongcheng, Beijing 100730, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 156 1196 3697, Email suny@ 123456bjmu.edu.cn
                Article
                copd-12-655
                10.2147/COPD.S124248
                5325112
                © 2017 Yang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                bronchiectasis, copd, chronic rhinosinusitis

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