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      Management of Pediatric Febrile Seizures

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          Febrile seizures (FS), events associated with a fever in the absence of an intracranial infection, hypoglycaemia, or an acute electrolyte imbalance, occur in children between six months and six years of age. FS are the most common type of convulsions in children. FS can be extremely frightening for parents, even if they are generally harmless for children, making it important to address parental anxiety in the most sensitive manner. The aim of this review was to focus on the management of FS in the pediatric age. An analysis of the literature showed that most children with FS have an excellent prognosis, and few develop long-term health problems. The diagnosis of FS is clinical, and it is important to exclude intracranial infections, in particular after a complex FS. Management consists of symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Parents and caregivers are often distressed and frightened after a FS occurs and need to be appropriately informed and guided on the management of their child’s fever by healthcare professionals. Due to the inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and treatments, it is extremely important to improve the knowledge of pediatricians and neurologists on FS management and to standardize the diagnostic and therapeutic work-up.

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          Neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure.

           ,   (2011)
          To formulate evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals about the diagnosis and evaluation of a simple febrile seizure in infants and young children 6 through 60 months of age and to revise the practice guideline published by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in 1996. This review included search and analysis of the medical literature published since the last version of the guideline. Physicians with expertise and experience in the fields of neurology and epilepsy, pediatrics, epidemiology, and research methodologies constituted a subcommittee of the AAP Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. The steering committee and other groups within the AAP and organizations outside the AAP reviewed the guideline. The subcommittee member who reviewed the literature for the 1996 AAP practice guidelines searched for articles published since the last guideline through 2009, supplemented by articles submitted by other committee members. Results from the literature search were provided to the subcommittee members for review. Interventions of direct interest included lumbar puncture, electroencephalography, blood studies, and neuroimaging. Multiple issues were raised and discussed iteratively until consensus was reached about recommendations. The strength of evidence supporting each recommendation and the strength of the recommendation were assessed by the committee member most experienced in informatics and epidemiology and graded according to AAP policy. Clinicians evaluating infants or young children after a simple febrile seizure should direct their attention toward identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child, and lumbar puncture should be performed if there are clinical signs or symptoms of concern. For any infant between 6 and 12 months of age who presents with a seizure and fever, a lumbar puncture is an option when the child is considered deficient in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) or Streptococcus pneumoniae immunizations (ie, has not received scheduled immunizations as recommended), or when immunization status cannot be determined, because of an increased risk of bacterial meningitis. A lumbar puncture is an option for children who are pretreated with antibiotics. In general, a simple febrile seizure does not usually require further evaluation, specifically electroencephalography, blood studies, or neuroimaging.
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            Febrile seizures: an update.

            This review focuses on the latest knowledge and understanding of febrile seizures and outlines the more important issues in the management of children who present with an apparent "febrile seizure". It is not the remit of this paper to discuss the detailed management of febrile seizures. Throughout this review, the words "partial" and "focal" will be used interchangeably and the term "febrile seizure" (FS) will be used, reflecting the proposed changes in the terminology of seizures and epilepsies.1
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              Febrile seizures.


                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                12 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 15
                : 10
                Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Piazza L. Severi 1, 06132 Perugia, Italy; daniela.laino@ 123456hotmail.it (D.L.); elisabetta.mencaroni@ 123456ospedale.perugia.it (E.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: susanna.esposito@ 123456unimi.it ; Tel.: +39-075-578-4417; Fax: +39-075-578-4415
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Public health

                convulsion, epilepsy, febrile seizure, fever, pediatric neurology


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