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      Sonic hedgehog is involved in formation of the ventral optic cup by limiting Bmp4 expression to the dorsal domain

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      Mechanisms of Development

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Accumulating evidence suggests that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a crucial role in eye vesicle patterning in vertebrates. Shh promotes expression of Pax2 in the optic stalk and represses expression of Pax6 in the optic cup. Shh signaling contributes to establishment of both proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral axes by activating Vax1, Vax2, and Pax2. In the dorsal part of the developing retina, Bmp4 is expressed and antagonizes the ventralizing effects of Shh signaling through the activation of Tbx5 expression in chick and Xenopus. To examine the roles of Shh signaling in optic cup formation and optic stalk development, we utilized the Smoothened (Smo) conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line. Smo is a membrane protein which mediates Shh signaling into inside of cells. Cre expression was driven by Fgf15 enhancer. The ventral evagination of the optic cup deteriorated from E10 in the Smo-CKO, whereas the dorsal optic cup and optic stalk develop normally until E11. We analyzed expression of various genes such as Pax family (Pax2/Pax6), Vax family (Vax1/Vax2) and Bmp4. Bmp4 expression was greatly upregulated in the optic vesicle by the 21-somite stage. Then Vax1/2 expression was decreased at the 20- to 24-somite stages. Pax2/6 expression was affected at the 27- to 32-somite stages. Our data suggest that the effects of the absence of Shh signaling on Vax1/Vax2 are mediated through increased Bmp4 expression throughout the optic cup. Also unchanged patterns of Raldh2 and Raldh3 suggest that retinoic acid is not the downstream to Shh signaling to control the ventral optic cup morphology. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Mechanisms of Development
          Mechanisms of Development
          Elsevier BV
          09254773
          January 2010
          January 2010
          : 127
          : 1-2
          : 62-72
          Article
          10.1016/j.mod.2009.10.006
          19854269
          a44050f8-1993-4f90-8b25-bf69eddfee1a
          © 2010

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