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Síndrome cortico-basal como una presentación clínica de una enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob esporádica Translated title: Corticobasal syndrome as a clinical spectrum of a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

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      Abstract

      La enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (ECJ) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa caracterizada por demencia rápidamente progresiva, mioclonías, compromiso motor y alteraciones características en los exámenes auxiliares; sin embargo existen presentaciones clínicas atípicas del cuadro. Presentamos un caso de ECJ esporádica en asociación clínica con un síndrome cortico-basal caracterizado por apraxia de extremidades, déficit sensorial cortical, fenómeno del miembro ajeno, bradicinesia y rigidez asimétricos; que es la presentación clásica de la degeneración cortico-basal. Además los hallazgos en el electroencefalograma, resonancia magnética cerebral y resultado de la proteína 14-3-3en LCR fueron compatibles con ECJ esporádico probable. Este caso sugiere que el compromiso neurológico asimétrico puede asociarse a ECJ esporádico.

      Translated abstract

      Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, motor impairment and typical features on complementary tests; however, unusual clinical features might be associated. Were port one case of sporadic CJD associated with corticobasal syndrome characterized by asymmetric limb apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, alien limb phenomenon, bradykinesia and rigidity; which is the classic clinical spectrum of the corticobasal degeneration. In addition, findings in electroencephalography (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positive CSF protein 14-3-3 were compatible with probable sporadic CJD. This case suggest that asymmetric neurologic impairment may be associated with sporadic CJD

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      Criteria for the diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration.

      Current criteria for the clinical diagnosis of pathologically confirmed corticobasal degeneration (CBD) no longer reflect the expanding understanding of this disease and its clinicopathologic correlations. An international consortium of behavioral neurology, neuropsychology, and movement disorders specialists developed new criteria based on consensus and a systematic literature review. Clinical diagnoses (early or late) were identified for 267 nonoverlapping pathologically confirmed CBD cases from published reports and brain banks. Combined with consensus, 4 CBD phenotypes emerged: corticobasal syndrome (CBS), frontal behavioral-spatial syndrome (FBS), nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS). Clinical features of CBD cases were extracted from descriptions of 209 brain bank and published patients, providing a comprehensive description of CBD and correcting common misconceptions. Clinical CBD phenotypes and features were combined to create 2 sets of criteria: more specific clinical research criteria for probable CBD and broader criteria for possible CBD that are more inclusive but have a higher chance to detect other tau-based pathologies. Probable CBD criteria require insidious onset and gradual progression for at least 1 year, age at onset ≥ 50 years, no similar family history or known tau mutations, and a clinical phenotype of probable CBS or either FBS or naPPA with at least 1 CBS feature. The possible CBD category uses similar criteria but has no restrictions on age or family history, allows tau mutations, permits less rigorous phenotype fulfillment, and includes a PSPS phenotype. Future validation and refinement of the proposed criteria are needed.
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          Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

          Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic resonance imaging was positive in 83% of cases. In all definite cases, the amended criteria would cover the vast majority of suspected cases, being positive in 98%. Cerebral cortical signal increase and high signal in caudate nucleus and putamen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. We propose an amendment to the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease to include findings from magnetic resonance imaging scans.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas Perú
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rnp
            Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría
            Rev Neuropsiquiatr
            Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Facultad de Medicina (Lima )
            0034-8597
            July 2015
            : 78
            : 3
            : 171-175
            S0034-85972015000300008

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Peru
            Categories
            NEUROSCIENCES
            PSYCHIATRY
            PSYCHOLOGY

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