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      Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


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          Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic resonance imaging was positive in 83% of cases. In all definite cases, the amended criteria would cover the vast majority of suspected cases, being positive in 98%. Cerebral cortical signal increase and high signal in caudate nucleus and putamen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. We propose an amendment to the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease to include findings from magnetic resonance imaging scans.

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          Classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on molecular and phenotypic analysis of 300 subjects.

          Phenotypic heterogeneity in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is well documented, but there is not yet a systematic classification of the disease variants. In a previous study, we showed that the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), and two types of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)) with distinct physicochemical properties, are major determinants of these variants. To define the full spectrum of variants, we have examined a series of 300 sCJD patients. Clinical features, PRNP genotype, and PrP(Sc) properties were determined in all subjects. In 187, we also studied neuropathological features and immunohistochemical pattern of PrP(Sc) deposition. Seventy percent of subjects showed the classic CJD phenotype, PrP(Sc) type 1, and at least one methionine allele at codon 129; 25% of cases displayed the ataxic and kuru-plaque variants, associated to PrP(Sc) type 2, and valine homozygosity or heterozygosity at codon 129, respectively. Two additional variants, which included a thalamic form of CJD and a phenotype characterized by prominent dementia and cortical pathology, were linked to PrP(Sc) type 2 and methionine homozygosity. Finally, a rare phenotype characterized by progressive dementia was linked to PrP(Sc) type 1 and valine homozygosity. The present data demonstrate the existence of six phenotypic variants of sCJD. The physicochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in conjunction with the PRNP codon 129 genotype largely determine this phenotypic variability, and allow a molecular classification of the disease variants.
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            Determinants of diagnostic investigation sensitivities across the clinical spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

            To validate the provisional findings of a number of smaller studies and explore additional determinants of characteristic diagnostic investigation results across the entire clinical spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), an international collaborative study was undertaken comprising 2451 pathologically confirmed (definite) patients. We assessed the influence of age at disease onset, illness duration, prion protein gene (PRNP) codon 129 polymorphism (either methionine or valine) and molecular sub-type on the diagnostic sensitivity of EEG, cerebral MRI and the CSF 14-3-3 immunoassay. For EEG and CSF 14-3-3 protein detection, we also assessed the influence of the time point in a patient's illness at which the investigation was performed on the likelihood of a typical or positive result. Analysis included a large subset of patients (n = 743) in whom molecular sub-typing had been performed using a combination of the PRNP codon 129 polymorphism and the form of protease resistant prion protein [type 1 or 2 according to Parchi et al. (Parchi P, Giese A, Capellari S, Brown P, Schulz-Schaeffer W, Windl O, Zerr I, Budka H, Kopp N, Piccardo P, Poser S, Rojiani A, Streichemberger N, Julien J, Vital C, Ghetti B, Gambetti P, Kretzschmar H. Classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on molecular and phenotypic analysis of 300 subjects. Ann Neurol 1999; 46: 224-233.)] present in the brain. Findings for the whole group paralleled the subset with molecular sub-typing data available, showing that age at disease onset and disease duration were independent determinants of typical changes on EEG, while illness duration significantly influenced positive CSF 14-3-3 protein detection; changes on brain MRI were not influenced by either of these clinical parameters, but overall, imaging data were less complete and consequently conclusions are more tentative. In addition to age at disease onset and illness duration, molecular sub-type was re-affirmed as an important independent determinant of investigation results. In multivariate analyses that included molecular sub-type, time point of the investigation during a patient's illness was found not to influence the occurrence of a typical or positive EEG or CSF 14-3-3 protein result. A typical EEG was most often seen in MM1 patients and was significantly less likely in the MV1, MV2 and VV2 sub-types, whereas VV2 patients had an increased likelihood of a typical brain MRI. Overall, the CSF 14-3-3 immunoassay was the most frequently positive investigation (88.1%) but performed significantly less well in the very uncommon MV2 and MM2 sub-types. Our findings confirm a number of determinants of principal investigation results in sporadic CJD and underscore the importance of recognizing these pre-test limitations before accepting the diagnosis excluded or confirmed. Combinations of investigations offer the best chance of detection, especially for the less common molecular sub-types such as MV2 and MM2.
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              Sporadic and familial CJD: classification and characterisation.

              Prion diseases are unique transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that have diverse phenotypes and can be familial, sporadic, or acquired by infection. Recent findings indicate that the PrP genotype and the PrP(Sc) type have a major influence on the disease phenotype in both sporadic and familial human prion diseases. This review attempts to classify and characterise sporadic and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) as a function of these two disease determinants. Based on the genotype at codon 129 on both PRNP alleles, the size of protease resistant PrP(Sc) fragments and disease phenotype, we divide sporadic CJD into six subtypes: sCJDMM1/sCJDMV1, sCJDVV2, sCJDMV2, sCJDMM2, sCJDVV1, and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI). Familial CJD is classified into many haplotypes based on the PRNP mutation and codon 129 (and other polymorphic codons) on the mutant allele. The clinical and pathological features are summarised for each sporadic CJD subtype and familial CJD haplotype.

                Author and article information

                Oxford University Press
                October 2009
                22 September 2009
                22 September 2009
                : 132
                : 10
                : 2659-2668
                1 National TSE Reference Center, Department of Neurology, Georg-August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
                2 Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
                3 CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
                4 Departamento de Neuropatologia, Centro de Referencia de Encefalopatias Espongiformes Transmisibles, Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas/FLENI Montañeses 2325 C1428AQK, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                5 Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Roma, Italy
                6 Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                7 INSERM UMRS 975, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière Cellule Nationale de référence des maladies de Creutzfeldt-Jakob Paris, F-75013, France
                8 Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, Department of Pathology, the University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia 3010
                9 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance System, Prion Diseases Program, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
                10 Division of Neurology, University Medical Center and Gerontopsychiatric Unit, University Psychiatric Hospital, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
                11 Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neuropathology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, Lisbon, Portugal
                12 Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
                13 Clinic Director, Mercy Private Radiology, Grey st, East Melbourne, 3002, Australia
                14 Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, University of Antwerp, Belgium
                15 Fundación ‘Marqués de Valdecilla’ IFIMAV and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED). Santander, Spain
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Inga Zerr, MD, National TSE Reference Center, Department of Neurology, Georg-August University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen, Germany E-mail: epicjd@ 123456med.uni-goettingen.de
                © The Author(s) 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Brain.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 26 March 2009
                : 12 June 2009
                : 14 June 2009
                Original Articles

                dementia,mri,flair,dwi,molecular subtypes,cjd
                dementia, mri, flair, dwi, molecular subtypes, cjd


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