The effect of 100 ng 1α-OH vitamin D/week alone and in combination with desferrioxamine (DFO), 150 mg/week, was evaluated in aluminum loaded uremic rats. Vitamin D (Vit D) caused an increase of A1 in muscle and a decrease in serum A1. Bone histology showed mineralization defect and an increase in bone mass, due to an increase in unmineralized bone, induced both by A1 and Vit D administration. Treatment with DFO enhanced urinary Al excretion and lowered tissue A1, without inducing major changes of static bone histology. It is concluded that in A1-loaded uremic rats Vit D can redistribute body A1 and that both Al and Vit D can cause a mineralization defect. A 6-week treatment with DFO lowers tissue A1 without changing significantly static bone parameters.