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      The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: pathways and mechanisms.

      Nature reviews. Cancer

      Animals, Depression, complications, Humans, Neoplasms, etiology, prevention & control, psychology, Risk Factors, Signal Transduction, Social Support, Socioeconomic Factors, Stress, Psychological

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          Abstract

          Epidemiological studies indicate that stress, chronic depression and lack of social support might serve as risk factors for cancer development and progression. Recent cellular and molecular studies have identified biological processes that could potentially mediate such effects. This review integrates clinical, cellular and molecular studies to provide a mechanistic understanding of the interface between biological and behavioural influences in cancer, and identifies novel behavioural or pharmacological interventions that might help improve cancer outcomes.

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          Most cited references 100

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          The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor.

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            Endocrinology of the stress response.

            The stress response is subserved by the stress system, which is located both in the central nervous system and the periphery. The principal effectors of the stress system include corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH); arginine vasopressin; the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, the glucocorticoids; and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. Appropriate responsiveness of the stress system to stressors is a crucial prerequisite for a sense of well-being, adequate performance of tasks, and positive social interactions. By contrast, inappropriate responsiveness of the stress system may impair growth and development and may account for a number of endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune, and psychiatric disorders. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors, and the timing of the stressful events, given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors.
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              EFFECT OF PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENT ON SURVIVAL OF PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC BREAST CANCER

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                16498446
                3146042
                10.1038/nrc1820

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