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      17β-Estradiol Modulates SIRT1 and Halts Oxidative Stress-Mediated Cognitive Impairment in a Male Aging Mouse Model

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          Abstract

          Oxidative stress has been considered the main mediator in neurodegenerative disease and in normal aging processes. Several studies have reported that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation result in cellular malfunction. These conditions lead to neuronal cell death in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease. Chronic administration of d-galactose ( d-gal) for a period of 10 weeks causes ROS generation and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to cognitive impairment. In this study, we evaluated the estrogen receptor α (ERα)/silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1)-dependent antioxidant efficacy of 17β-estradiol against d-gal-induced oxidative damage-mediated cognitive dysfunction in a male mouse model. The results indicate that 17β-estradiol, by stimulating ERα/SIRT1, halts d-gal-induced oxidative stress–mediated JNK/NF-ҡB overexpression, neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, 17β-estradiol ameliorated d-gal-induced AD-like pathophysiology, synaptic dysfunction and memory impairment in adult mouse brains. Interestingly, inhibition of SIRT1 with Ex527 (a potent and selective SIRT1 inhibitor) further enhanced d-gal-induced toxicity and abolished the beneficial effect of 17β-estradiol. Most importantly, for the first time, our molecular docking study reveals that 17β-estradiol allosterically increases the expression of SIRT1 and abolishes the inhibitory potential of d-ga. In summary, we can conclude that 17β-estradiol, in an ERα/SIRT1-dependent manner, abrogates d-gal-induced oxidative stress–mediated memory impairment, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in adult mice.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Sirtuins in mammals: insights into their biological function.

          Sirtuins are a conserved family of proteins found in all domains of life. The first known sirtuin, Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from which the family derives its name, regulates ribosomal DNA recombination, gene silencing, DNA repair, chromosomal stability and longevity. Sir2 homologues also modulate lifespan in worms and flies, and may underlie the beneficial effects of caloric restriction, the only regimen that slows aging and extends lifespan of most classes of organism, including mammals. Sirtuins have gained considerable attention for their impact on mammalian physiology, since they may provide novel targets for treating diseases associated with aging and perhaps extend human lifespan. In this review we describe our current understanding of the biological function of the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1-7, and we will also discuss their potential as mediators of caloric restriction and as pharmacological targets to delay and treat human age-related diseases.
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            Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary.

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              Sirt1 extends life span and delays aging in mice through the regulation of Nk2 homeobox 1 in the DMH and LH.

              The mammalian Sir2 ortholog Sirt1 plays an important role in metabolic regulation. However, the role of Sirt1 in the regulation of aging and longevity is still controversial. Here we demonstrate that brain-specific Sirt1-overexpressing (BRASTO) transgenic mice show significant life span extension in both males and females, and aged BRASTO mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with a delay in aging. These phenotypes are mediated by enhanced neural activity specifically in the dorsomedial and lateral hypothalamic nuclei (DMH and LH, respectively), through increased orexin type 2 receptor (Ox2r) expression. We identified Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2-1) as a partner of Sirt1 that upregulates Ox2r transcription and colocalizes with Sirt1 in the DMH and LH. DMH/LH-specific knockdown of Sirt1, Nkx2-1, or Ox2r and DMH-specific Sirt1 overexpression further support the role of Sirt1/Nkx2-1/Ox2r-mediated signaling for longevity-associated phenotypes. Our findings indicate the importance of DMH/LH-predominant Sirt1 activity in the regulation of aging and longevity in mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                19 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 8
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Life sciences and Applied Life Science (BK 21plus), College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS), Medical Center (MUMC+), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, European Graduate School of Neuroscience (EURON), 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mokim@ 123456gnu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-55-772-1345; Fax: +82-55-772-2656
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this paper.

                Article
                cells-08-00928
                10.3390/cells8080928
                6721687
                31430865
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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