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      Mitral Valve Surgery in Patients with Ischemic and Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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          Abstract

          Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic, progressive disease and its central element is the remodeling of the cardiac chamber associated with ventricular dilatation. Secondary mitral regurgitation is a complication of end-stage cardiomyopathy and is associated with a poor prognosis. It is due to progressive mitral annular dilatation and alteration in the geometry of the left ventricle. A vicious cycle of continuing volume overload, ventricular dilatation, progression of annular dilatation, increased left ventricular wall tension and worsening mitral regurgitation and CHF occurs. The mainstays of medical therapy are diuretics and afterload reduction, which are associated with poor long-term survival in these patients. Historically, the surgical approach to patients with mitral regurgitation was mitral valve replacement, but these patients were not considered operative candidates because of their high morbidity and mortality. Heart transplantation is now considered standard treatment for select patients with end-stage heart disease; however, it is applicable only to a small number of patients. Mitral valve replacement in these patients is associated with adverse consequences on left ventricular systolic function resulting from interruption of the annulus-papillary muscle continuity. Preserving the mitral valve apparatus and left ventricle in mitral valve repair enhances and maintains left ventricular function and geometry with an associated decrease in wall stress. Using these operative techniques to alter the shape of the left ventricle, in combination with optimal medical management for heart failure, improves survival and may avoid or postpone transplantation.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Dilated cardiomyopathy with mitral regurgitation: decreased survival despite a low frequency of left ventricular thrombus.

          Ninety-one patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied by two-dimensional, pulsed, and color Doppler echocardiography (1) to detect and quantify mitral regurgitation (MR), (2) to record apical flow velocities in systole and diastole, and (3) to detect the presence of left ventricular thrombi. MR was detected in 57% of the patients and thrombi were present in 40%, but the occurrence of both MR and thrombus was rare (8%). Apical flow velocity was significantly higher throughout the cardiac cycle in the group with MR (diastole 15 +/- 7 vs 9 +/- 7 cm/sec; systole 29 +/- 12 vs 16 +/- 13 cm/sec; p less than 0.001 for both), accounting for the rarity of thrombi in this group. Follow-up data on 89% of the patients showed markedly decreased survival in the group with MR (22% vs 60% at 32 +/- 6 months, p less than 0.005), and this was evident even in patients with mild MR. Thus although MR is a noninvasively obtainable marker of a large subgroup of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy "protected" from left ventricular thrombus formation, it is a sensitive marker of decreased survival.
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            Ischemic mitral regurgitation: intraventricular papillary muscle imbrication without mitral ring during left ventricular restoration.

            Functional mitral regurgitation in ischemic cardiomyopathy carries a poor prognosis, and its surgical management remains problematic and controversial. The aim of this study was to report the results of our surgical approach to patients who have had myocardial infarctions and have ventricular dilatation, mitral regurgitation, reduced pump function, pulmonary hypertension and coronary artery disease. This surgical approach consists of endoventricular mitral repair without prosthetic ring, ventricular reconstruction with or without patch, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Forty-six patients (aged 64 +/- 10 years) with previous anterior transmural myocardial infarction and mitral regurgitation comprised the study group. Indication for surgery was heart failure in 93% of cases; 25 patients were in New York Heart Association functional class IV and 17 were in class III. Mitral regurgitation was moderate to severe in 32 cases (69%). All patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, with a mean of 3.2 +/- 1.3 grafts. Associated aortic valve replacement was performed in 4 cases. Global operative mortality rate was 15.2%. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes significantly decreased after surgery (from 140 +/- 40 to 98 +/- 36 mL/m(2) and from 98 +/- 32 to 63 +/- 22 mL/m(2), respectively, P =.001). Systolic pulmonary pressure decreased significantly (from 55 +/- 13 to 43 +/- 16 mm Hg, P =.001). Ejection fraction did not change significantly. Postoperative mitral regurgitation was absent or minimal in 84% of cases; 1 patient had severe mitral regurgitation necessitating valve replacement. New York Heart Association functional class significantly improved. The mean preoperative functional class was 3.4 +/- 0.6 (median 3, range 2-4); after the operation, this decreased to 1.9 +/- 0.7 (median 2, range 1-3, P <.001). Cumulative survival at a 30-month follow-up was 63%. Our aggressive, combined surgical approach is aimed at correcting the three components of ischemic cardiomyopathy: relieving ischemia, reducing left ventricular wall tension by decreasing left ventricular volumes, and reducing volume overload and pulmonary hypertension by repairing the mitral valve. Despite a relatively high perioperative mortality rate, surviving patients benefitted from the operation, with improved clinical functional class and thus quality of life.
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              Mitral valve surgery in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction.

              The objectives of this study were to determine (1) survival, (2) functional status and freedom from readmission for heart failure and (3) change in postoperative left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function following mitral valve repair or replacement in patients with severe LV dysfunction and mitral regurgitation. Between 1990 and 1998, 44 patients with mitral regurgitation and a LV ejection fraction <35% (mean+/-SD, 28+/-6%) underwent isolated mitral repair (n=35) or replacement (n=9). The etiology of regurgitation was valvular in 18 (40%) patients, ischemic in 13 (30%) patients and dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy in 13 (30%) patients. Every patient had been hospitalized one to six times for symptoms of heart failure (mean+/-SD, 2.3+/-1.5). All patients were receiving maximal drug therapy with 15 (34%) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and 12 (27%) in class IV. Seven (16%) patients were initially referred for consideration of transplantation. The mean+/-SD duration of follow-up was 40+/-21 months. One (2.3%) patient died 9 days postoperatively of acute bronchopneumonia. The mean+/-SD duration of ICU and hospital stay was 41+/-34 h and 9+/-3 days, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates were 89, 86 and 67%, respectively. Heart failure and sudden death accounted for 62% of the late deaths. The NYHA class improved for survivors from 2.8+/-0.8 preoperatively to 1. 2+/-0.5 at follow-up (P<0.0001). Freedom from readmission for heart failure was 88, 82 and 72% at 1, 2 and 5 years, respectively. No patient has been listed for transplantation. Mitral valve surgery offers symptomatic improvement and survival benefit in patients with severe LV dysfunction and mitral regurgitation. More liberal use of this surgery for cardiomyopathy patients is warranted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7739-7
                978-3-318-01077-0
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2004
                February 2004
                27 February 2004
                : 101
                : 1-3
                : 15-20
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA
                Article
                75981 Cardiology 2004;101:15–20
                10.1159/000075981
                14988622
                a57f75a4-d8cf-4cfb-b4ff-d1264555f29b
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 27, Pages: 6
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