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      Celecoxib Inhibits Serum Amyloid A-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-10 Expression in Human Endothelial Cells

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          Background: Although serum amyloid A (SAA) is an established biomarker of coronary artery disease (CAD), its direct role in matrix degradation is obscure. This study investigated the effect of SAA on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) in endothelial cells. The effect of celecoxib on SAA-dependent MMP-10 expression and its possible mediator were also investigated. Methods and Results: From our time course microarray screening, SAA (20 μg/ml) was found to increase MMP-10 mRNA expression over time (4–48 h) in human endothelial cells. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed this transcriptional induction. Correspondingly, secreted MMP-10 protein was also markedly induced by SAA treatment for 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. We further examined cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its major product, prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>), as possible mediators of MMP-10 induction. Direct PGE<sub>2</sub> treatment could result in MMP-10 induction. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, suppressed MMP-10 secretion induced by SAA. Conclusions: SAA induced MMP-10 expression and celecoxib prevented its induction. MMP-10 induction was at least partly mediated by PGE<sub>2</sub>.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Cardiovascular risk and inhibition of cyclooxygenase: a systematic review of the observational studies of selective and nonselective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase 2.

          Evidence that rofecoxib increases the risk of myocardial infarction has led to scrutiny of other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Regulatory agencies have provided variable advice regarding the cardiovascular risks with older nonselective NSAIDs. To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled observational studies to compare the risks of serious cardiovascular events with individual NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors. Searches were conducted of electronic databases (1985-2006), scientific meeting proceedings, epidemiological research Web sites, and bibliographies of eligible studies. Eligible studies were of case-control or cohort design, reported on cardiovascular events (predominantly myocardial infarction) with cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, NSAID use, or both with nonuse/remote use of the drugs as the reference exposure. Of 7086 potentially eligible titles, 17 case-control and 6 cohort studies were included. Thirteen studies reported on cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, 23 on NSAIDs, and 13 on both groups of drugs. Two people independently extracted data and assessed study quality with disagreements resolved by consensus. Data were combined using a random-effects model. A dose-related risk was evident with rofecoxib, summary relative risk with 25 mg/d or less, 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.79) and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.64-2.91) with more than 25 mg/d. The risk was elevated during the first month of treatment. Celecoxib was not associated with an elevated risk of vascular occlusion, summary relative risk 1.06 (95% CI, 0.91-1.23). Among older nonselective drugs, diclofenac had the highest risk with a summary relative risk of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.16-1.70). The other drugs had summary relative risks close to 1: naproxen, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.87-1.07); piroxicam, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.70-1.59); and ibuprofen, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.97-1.18). This review confirms the findings from randomized trials regarding the risk of cardiovascular events with rofecoxib and suggests that celecoxib in commonly used doses may not increase the risk, contradicts claims of a protective effect of naproxen, and raises serious questions about the safety of diclofenac, an older drug.
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            Celecoxib for the prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas.

            Studies showing that drugs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) reduce the number of colorectal adenomas in animals and patients with familial adenomatous polyposis suggest that COX-2 inhibitors may also prevent sporadic colorectal neoplasia. We randomly assigned patients who had adenomas removed before study entry to receive placebo (679 patients) or 200 mg (685 patients) or 400 mg (671 patients) of celecoxib twice daily. Randomization was stratified for the use of low-dose aspirin. Follow-up colonoscopies were performed at one and three years after randomization. The occurrence of newly detected colorectal adenomas was compared among the groups with the life-table extension of the Mantel-Haenszel test. Follow-up colonoscopies were completed at year 1 in 89.5 percent of randomized patients, and at year 3 in 75.7 percent. The estimated cumulative incidence of the detection of one or more adenomas by year 3 was 60.7 percent for patients receiving placebo, as compared with 43.2 percent for those receiving 200 mg of celecoxib twice a day (risk ratio, 0.67; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.77; P<0.001) and 37.5 percent for those receiving 400 mg of celecoxib twice a day (risk ratio, 0.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.64; P<0.001). Serious adverse events occurred in 18.8 percent of patients in the placebo group, as compared with 20.4 percent of those in the low-dose celecoxib group (risk ratio, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.3; P=0.5) and 23.0 percent of those in the high-dose group (risk ratio, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.5; P=0.06). As compared with placebo, celecoxib was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (risk ratio for the low dose, 2.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.1; and risk ratio for the high dose, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 7.9). These findings indicate that celecoxib is an effective agent for the prevention of colorectal adenomas but, because of potential cardiovascular events, cannot be routinely recommended for this indication. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005094 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Dual role of matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) in intimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque rupture.

              Intimal thickening, the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix within the inner vessel wall, is a physiological response to mechanical injury, increased wall stress, or chemical insult (e.g., atherosclerosis). If excessive, it can lead to the obstruction of blood flow and tissue ischemia. Together with expansive or constrictive remodeling, the extent of intimal expansion determines final lumen size and vessel wall thickness. Plaque rupture represents a failure of intimal remodeling, where the fibrous cap overlying an atheromatous core of lipid undergoes catastrophic mechanical breakdown. Plaque rupture promotes coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction, the most prevalent cause of premature death in advanced societies. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can act together to degrade the major components of the vascular extracellular matrix. All cells present in the normal and diseased blood vessel wall upregulate and activate MMPs in a multistep fashion driven in part by soluble cytokines and cell-cell interactions. Activation of MMP proforms requires other MMPs or other classes of protease. MMP activation contributes to intimal growth and vessel wall remodeling in response to injury, most notably by promoting migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. A broader spectrum and/or higher level of MMP activation, especially associated with inflammation, could contribute to pathological matrix destruction and plaque rupture. Inhibiting the activity of specific MMPs or preventing their upregulation could ameliorate intimal thickening and prevent myocardial infarction.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2008
                16 June 2008
                : 46
                : 1
                : 64-72
                Department of Pediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
                139134 J Vasc Res 2009;46:64–72
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 9
                Research Paper


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