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      Usefulness of Intracoronary Epinephrine in Severe Hypotension during Percutaneous Coronary Interventions


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          Background and Objectives

          Life-threatening hypotension during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is devastating for the patient and is associated with fatal adverse outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of intracoronary epinephrine in severe hypotension unresponsive to other measures during PCI.

          Subjects and Methods

          We analyzed the Pusan National University Yangsan hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory database to identify patients who underwent PCI from December 2008 to July 2012. The outcomes were changes of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) before and after intracoronary epinephrine and in-hospital mortality.


          A total of 30 patients who were initially stable and received intracoronary epinephrine for severe hypotension during PCI were included. Following administration of intracoronary epinephrine (dose 181±24.8 microgram), systolic and diastolic BP (from 53.8±13.0 mm Hg up to 112.8±21.2 mm Hg, from 35±7.6 mm Hg up to 70.6±12.7 mm Hg, respectively) and HR (from 39.4±5.1 beats/min up to 96.8±29.3 beats/min) were increased. Additionally, 21 patients (70%) showed hemodynamically acceptable responses to intracoronary epinephrine without the intraaortic balloon pump and temporary pacemaker during the PCI. In-hospital mortality was 17% (n=5).


          Although our study was small, intracoronary epinephrine was found to be well tolerated and resulted in prompt and successful recovery from severe hypotension in most patients when other measures were ineffective. Intracoronary epinephrine could be a safe and useful measure in patients developing severe hypotension during PCI.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Exacerbation of vasotonic angina pectoris by propranolol.

          Using a double-blind protocol, we investigated the use of propranolol in patients with coronary artery spasm as assessed by subjective and objective variables. Both low-dose (40 mg every 6 hours) and high-dose (160 mg every 6 hours) propranolol were administered. At both doses, the duration of angina attacks was significantly prolonged but the frequency was not. We conclude that propranolol at doses up to 160 mg every 6 hours as single therapy is frequently detrimental in angina pectoris due to coronary artery spasm and should not be used as the sole treatment of this disorder.
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            Resolution of refractory no-reflow with intracoronary epinephrine.

            Refractory no-reflow is associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Charts were reviewed to identify 29 consecutive patients in whom intracoronary epinephrine was administered for refractory no-reflow. The effects of intracoronary epinephrine on coronary flow (TIMI grade), cardiac rhythm, and systolic blood pressure in the cardiac catheterization laboratory were assessed. Administration of intracoronary epinephrine (mean dose, 139 +/- 189 microg) resulted in significant improvement in coronary flow. After administration, TIMI 3 flow was established in 69% of patients. Overall, TIMI flow significantly increased (mean TIMI flow form 1.0 +/- 1.0 to 2.66 +/- 0.55; P = 0.0001). Intracoronary epinephrine resulted in significant but tolerable increase in heart rate (72 +/- 19 to 86 +/- 26 beats/min; P = 0.009), but no cases of acute dysrhythmia. These findings indicate that intracoronary epinephrine may exert salutary effects in patients suffering refractory no-reflow following elective or acute coronary interventions. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Vasopressin improves outcome in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia: a observational cohort study

              Introduction An increasing body of evidence from laboratory and clinical studies suggests that vasopressin may represent a promising alternative vasopressor for use during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend the use of adrenaline (epinephrine), with vasopressin considered only as a secondary option because of limited clinical data. Method The present study was conducted in a prehospital setting and included patients with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia undergoing one of three treatments: group I patients received only adrenaline 1 mg every 3 minutes; group II patients received one intravenous dose of arginine vasopressine (40 IU) after three doses of 1 mg epinephrine; and patients in group III received vasopressin 40 IU as first-line therapy. The cause of cardiac arrest (myocardial infarction or other cause) was established for each patient in hospital. Results A total of 109 patients who suffered nontraumatic cardiac arrest were included in the study. The rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation and subsequent hospital admission were higher in vasopressin-treated groups (23/53 [45%] in group I, 19/31 [61%] in group II and 17/27 [63%] in group III). There were also higher 24-hour survival rates among vasopressin-treated patients (P < 0.05), and more vasopressin-treated patients were discharged from hospital (10/51 [20%] in group I, 8/31 [26%] in group II and 7/27 [26%] group III; P = 0.21). Especially in the subgroup of patients with myocardial infarction as the underlying cause of cardiac arrest, the hospital discharge rate was significantly higher in vasopressin-treated patients (P < 0.05). Among patients who were discharged from hospital, we found no significant differences in neurological status between groups. Conclusion The greater 24-hour survival rate in vasopressin-treated patients suggests that consideration of combined vasopressin and adrenaline is warranted for the treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. This is especially the case for those patients with myocardial infarction, for whom vasopressin treatment is also associated with a higher hospital discharge rate.

                Author and article information

                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circulation Journal
                The Korean Society of Cardiology
                November 2013
                30 November 2013
                : 43
                : 11
                : 739-743
                [1 ]Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kook-Jin Chun, MD, Cardiovascular Center, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, 20 Geumo-ro, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan 626-770, Korea. Tel: 82-55-360-1454, Fax: 82-55-360-2204, ptca82@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright © 2013 The Korean Society of Cardiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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