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      Natural History and Prognostic Factors of IgA Nephropathy Presented with Isolated Microscopic Hematuria in Chinese Patients


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          Background/Aims: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) with isolated microscopic hematuria (IMH) is prevalent in Asian countries including China. However, the natural history of IgAN with IMH has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to review the natural course and prognostic factors of IgAN with IMH in Chinese patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied 135 patients (43 males and 92 females) followed up for a mean period of 92 ± 28 months. In order to identify factors associated with renal progression, clinical and pathological data at onset were reviewed. Results: During the follow-up period, hematuria of 16 patients (12%) disappeared while persistent microscopic hematuria was seen in 119 patients (88%), and proteinuria was present in 39 patients (29%). The prevalence of hypertension was 32% (43 patients), and 20% (27 patients) developed renal insufficiency. The prevalence of proteinuria and hypertension in the microalbuminuria group was significantly higher than those in the normoalbuminuria group. Poor renal outcome is usually associated with hematuria, microalbuminuria, and tubulointerstitial lesions. Conclusion: IgAN with IMH may not imply favorable outcome, so early diagnosis and careful follow-up are clinically significant. Hematuria, microalbuminuria, and tubulointerstitial lesions are useful markers to identify those patients at high risk for renal progression.

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          Most cited references18

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          Natural history of idiopathic IgA nephropathy: role of clinical and histological prognostic factors.

          G D'Amico (2000)
          Idiopathic immunoglobulin A nephropathy is characterized by an extreme variability in clinical course and sometimes by the unpredictability of the ultimate outcome. Among the numerous studies published in the last 15 years that have calculated the actuarial renal survival and tried to individuate the prognostic role of the clinical and histological features present at the onset of the disease or the time of biopsy, we chose to analyze critically the results of the most valid (30 studies). Actuarial renal survival at 10 years in adults was between 80% and 85% in most of the European and Asian studies, but it was less in studies from the United States and exceeded 90% in the few studies of children. Concordance existed in this selected literature that impairment of renal function, severe proteinuria, and arterial hypertension are the strongest and more reliable clinical predictors of an unfavorable outcome. However, analysis of the prognostic value of morphological lesions was more difficult because they have been characterized in some studies using an overall score or histological classes of progressively more severe involvement and, in others, using a semiquantitative grading of individual glomerular, tubular, interstitial, and vascular changes. In adult patients, a high score of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, corresponding to classes IV and V of the Lee or Haas classifications, predicted a more rapid progression. When single lesions were analyzed separately, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis appeared to be the strongest, most reliable predictors of unfavorable prognosis. More controversial was the role of crescents and capsular adhesions. None of the immunohistological features was found to be a risk factor for progression in the more accurate statistical analyses. The same histological features predicted outcome in children, although the severity of lesions at the time of biopsy was usually less than that in adults. However, in the single patient, even the evaluation of these prognostic markers sometimes fails to correctly predict outcome, probably because of the heterogeneity of the disease and the discontinuous activity of some injuring mechanisms during its course.
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            Distribution of primary renal diseases leading to end-stage renal failure in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand: results from an international comparative study.

            This report notes the differences in the classification of the primary renal disease (PRD) used in different renal dialysis and transplant registries worldwide. The heterogeneity of coding systems complicates the comparative analysis of end-stage renal disease from different regions. Using data collected over two decades in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand, we present a method for reorganization of the classes of PRD that allows a straightforward comparison of retrospective data from these registries.
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              The natural history of immunoglobulin a nephropathy among patients with hematuria and minimal proteinuria.

              To determine the natural history of immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy among patients who presented with hematuria and minimal proteinuria, and factors associated with the development of adverse clinical events, such as proteinuria. In Hong Kong, all patients who present with isolated hematuria are referred for renal biopsy after urologic diseases are ruled out. We reviewed the clinical course of 72 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed IgA nephropathy who presented with hematuria and minimal proteinuria (0.4 g/day or less). All patients were normotensive and had normal renal function at presentation. Adverse events were defined as proteinuria greater than 1 g per day, hypertension, or impaired renal function (serum creatinine level 120 micromol/L or estimated creatinine clearance l g/day) to renal impairment was 84 months (range 56 to 132). In a multivariate analysis, age at presentation (relative risk [RR] per 10 years of age = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.4) and histologic grade (grade 2 versus grade 1, RR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 12) were independent predictors of developing an adverse event. IgA nephropathy that presents with hematuria and minimal proteinuria is usually a progressive disease. Life-long follow-up with regular monitoring of blood pressure and proteinuria is recommended.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                July 2007
                26 June 2007
                : 106
                : 4
                : c157-c161
                Department of Nephrology, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, PR China
                104426 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;106:c157–c161
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 12 September 2006
                : 07 March 2007
                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 29, Pages: 1
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Hypertension,IgA nephropathy,Microalbuminuria,Proteinuria,Renal insufficiency


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