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      Altered Protein Composition and Gene Expression in Strabismic Human Extraocular Muscles and Tendons

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles.

          Methods

          Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines.

          Results

          Strabismic muscles showed downregulation of myosins, tropomyosins, troponins, and titin. Expression of collagens and regulators of collagen synthesis and degradation, the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and its inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1 and TIMP2, was upregulated, along with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptors, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), as well as proteoglycans. Growth factors controlling extracellular matrix (ECM) were also upregulated. Among 410 signaling genes examined by PCR arrays, molecules with downregulation in the strabismic phenotype included GDNF, NRG1, and PAX7; CTGF, CXCR4, NPY1R, TNF, NTRK1, and NTRK2 were upregulated. Signaling molecules known to control extraocular muscle plasticity were predominantly expressed in the tendon rather than the muscle component. The two horizontal muscles, medial and lateral rectus, displayed similar changes in protein and gene expression, and no obvious effect of age.

          Conclusions

          Quantification of proteins and gene expression showed significant differences in the composition of extraocular muscles of strabismic patients with respect to important motor proteins, elements of the ECM, and connective tissue. Therefore, our study supports the emerging view that the molecular composition of strabismic muscles is substantially altered.

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          Most cited references 53

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          MultiNotch MS3 Enables Accurate, Sensitive, and Multiplexed Detection of Differential Expression across Cancer Cell Line Proteomes

          Multiplexed quantitation via isobaric chemical tags (e.g., tandem mass tags (TMT) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)) has the potential to revolutionize quantitative proteomics. However, until recently the utility of these tags was questionable due to reporter ion ratio distortion resulting from fragmentation of coisolated interfering species. These interfering signals can be negated through additional gas-phase manipulations (e.g., MS/MS/MS (MS3) and proton-transfer reactions (PTR)). These methods, however, have a significant sensitivity penalty. Using isolation waveforms with multiple frequency notches (i.e., synchronous precursor selection, SPS), we coisolated and cofragmented multiple MS2 fragment ions, thereby increasing the number of reporter ions in the MS3 spectrum 10-fold over the standard MS3 method (i.e., MultiNotch MS3). By increasing the reporter ion signals, this method improves the dynamic range of reporter ion quantitation, reduces reporter ion signal variance, and ultimately produces more high-quality quantitative measurements. To demonstrate utility, we analyzed biological triplicates of eight colon cancer cell lines using the MultiNotch MS3 method. Across all the replicates we quantified 8 378 proteins in union and 6 168 proteins in common. Taking into account that each of these quantified proteins contains eight distinct cell-line measurements, this data set encompasses 174 704 quantitative ratios each measured in triplicate across the biological replicates. Herein, we demonstrate that the MultiNotch MS3 method uniquely combines multiplexing capacity with quantitative sensitivity and accuracy, drastically increasing the informational value obtainable from proteomic experiments.
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            Tropomyosin-based regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in time and space.

            Tropomyosins are rodlike coiled coil dimers that form continuous polymers along the major groove of most actin filaments. In striated muscle, tropomyosin regulates the actin-myosin interaction and, hence, contraction of muscle. Tropomyosin also contributes to most, if not all, functions of the actin cytoskeleton, and its role is essential for the viability of a wide range of organisms. The ability of tropomyosin to contribute to the many functions of the actin cytoskeleton is related to the temporal and spatial regulation of expression of tropomyosin isoforms. Qualitative and quantitative changes in tropomyosin isoform expression accompany morphogenesis in a range of cell types. The isoforms are segregated to different intracellular pools of actin filaments and confer different properties to these filaments. Mutations in tropomyosins are directly involved in cardiac and skeletal muscle diseases. Alterations in tropomyosin expression directly contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. The functional specificity of tropomyosins is related to the collaborative interactions of the isoforms with different actin binding proteins such as cofilin, gelsolin, Arp 2/3, myosin, caldesmon, and tropomodulin. It is proposed that local changes in signaling activity may be sufficient to drive the assembly of isoform-specific complexes at different intracellular sites.
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              Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement.

               E. Azizi,  J. Roberts (2011)
              The muscles that power vertebrate locomotion are associated with springy tissues, both within muscle and in connective tissue elements such as tendons. These springs share in common the same simple action: they stretch and store elastic strain energy when force is applied to them and recoil to release energy when force decays. Although this elastic action is simple, it serves a diverse set of functions, including metabolic energy conservation, amplification of muscle power output, attenuation of muscle power input, and rapid mechanical feedback that may aid in stability. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms and importance of biological springs in locomotion has advanced significantly, and it has been demonstrated that elastic mechanisms are essential for the effective function of the muscle motors that power movement. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of elastic mechanisms, with an emphasis on two proposed organizing principles. First, we review the evidence that the various functions of biological springs allow the locomotor system to operate beyond the bounds of intrinsic muscle properties, including metabolic and mechanical characteristics, as well as motor control processes. Second, we propose that an energy-based framework is useful for interpreting the diverse functions of series-elastic springs. In this framework, the direction and timing of the flow of energy between the body, the elastic element and the contracting muscle determine the function served by the elastic mechanism (e.g. energy conservation vs power amplification). We also review recent work demonstrating that structures such as tendons remodel more actively and behave more dynamically than previously assumed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci
                iovs
                iovs
                iovs
                Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                0146-0404
                1552-5783
                October 2016
                : 57
                : 13
                : 5576-5585
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada, United States
                [2 ]Mick Hitchcock Nevada Proteomics Center, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, United States
                [3 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [4 ]Sierra Eye Associates, Reno, Nevada, United States
                Author notes
                Correspondence : Christopher S. von Bartheld, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, MS 352, Reno, NV 89557, USA; cvonbartheld@ 123456medicine.nevada.edu .
                Article
                iovs-57-11-42 IOVS-16-20294
                10.1167/iovs.16-20294
                5080916
                27768799

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                Product
                Categories
                Eye Movements, Strabismus, Amblyopia and Neuro-Ophthalmology

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