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      Mortality and Renal Outcome of Primary Glomerulonephritis in Korea: Observation in 1,943 Biopsied Cases

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          Abstract

          Background: Previous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence of primary glomerulonephritis (GN), but few have explored long-term patient outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the long-term patient and renal outcomes of primary GN. Methods: A total of 1,943 biopsy-proven primary GN patients were included. The outcomes were mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) progression. The relative mortality rate was expressed by the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: During the median follow-up of 90 months, 325 (16.7%) patients progressed to ESRD and 164 (8.4%) patients died. Patients with minimal change disease exhibited the best renal and patient outcomes, whereas those with membranoproliferative GN had the worst. IgA nephropathy patients appeared to have a good survival rate in spite of their considerable progression to ESRD, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis patients showed poor renal and patient outcomes. Mortality was 67% higher in primary GN patients than in the age- and sex-matched general population (SMR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42–1.95). The difference was more prominent in women (SMR, 2.95; 95% CI, 2.27–3.77) than in men (SMR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07–1.60). Renal risk factors, e.g. hypertension, proteinuria and initial renal dysfunction, were all associated with higher mortality, and the relative mortality rate increased with the number of risk factors. Conclusions: In patients with primary GN, mortality is significantly higher than in the age-/sex-matched general population, especially in women. Moreover, the presence of renal risk factors is positively associated with both relative mortality and progression to ESRD.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Changing prevalence of glomerular diseases in Korean adults: a review of 20 years of experience.

          The prevalence of glomerular diseases differs according to geographic area, race, age and indications for a renal biopsy. This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution and changing patterns of renal diseases during the past 20 years in a large patient population in Korea. Patients aged 16 years or older who underwent a renal biopsy at Severance Hospital in the Yonsei University Health System from 1987 to 2006 were enrolled. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. In total, 1818 patients (M:F = 1.02:1) were reviewed. Glomerulonephritis (GN) comprised 85.9% of the total biopsied cases. The most common primary GN was IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (28.3%), which was followed by minimal change disease (MCD) (15.5%), membranous nephropathy (MN) (12.3%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (5.6%) and membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) (4.0%). The most common secondary GN was lupus nephritis (8.7%). The most common idiopathic nephrotic syndrome was MCD (38.5%), which was followed by MN and IgAN. Among 128 (7.4%) patients who were HBsAg-positive, MN (30.5%) and MPGN (21.1%) were the most common GN. When the incidence rates between 1987-91 and 2002-06 were compared, IgAN increased from 25.6 to 34.5%, while MCD (from 23.2 to 7.0%) and MPGN (from 6.7 to 1.7%) decreased significantly (P < 0.01). IgAN was the most common primary GN, and MCD was the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome. In the 5-year quartile comparison, the relative frequency of IgAN increased, while the relative frequency of MCD and MPGN decreased significantly during the past 20 years.
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            Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis: definition and relevance of a partial remission.

            Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common primary glomerular diseases to terminate in ESRD. A complete remission (CR) confers an excellent long-term prognosis, but the quantitative benefits of partial remissions (PR) have not been defined. This study evaluated the rate of renal function decline (slope of creatinine clearance) and renal survival in nephrotic FSGS patients with CR, PR, or no remission. It also examined relapse rate from remission and its impact on outcome. Multivariate analysis included clinical and laboratory data at presentation and over follow-up, BP control, the agents used, and immunosuppressive therapy. The study cohort was 281 nephrotic FSGS patients who had a minimum of 12 mo of observation and were identified from the Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry. Over a median follow-up of 65 mo, 55 experienced a CR, 117 had a PR, and 109 had no remission. A PR was independently predictive of slope and survival from renal failure by multivariate analysis (adjusted time-dependent hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.96; P = 0.04). Immunosuppression with high-dose prednisone was associated with a higher rate of PR and CR. Relapse from PR was frequent (56%) and associated with a more rapid rate of renal function decline and worse renal survival compared with relapse-free partial remitters. Only female gender and the nadir of proteinuria during remission were associated with a sustained remission. A PR in proteinuria and its maintenance are important therapeutic targets in FSGS, with implications for both slowing progression rate and improving renal survival.
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              Changing incidence of glomerular diseases in adults.

              Studies performed at large metropolitan medical centers have reported an increasing incidence of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in adults. To determine whether a similar trend occurs in small urban and rural communities and to determine the role of race in these observations, we reviewed the patient records of all adults who underwent renal biopsies at our institution over the 20-year period from 1974 to 1994. The patients were grouped for analysis in 5-year intervals, 1975 to 1979, 1980 to 1984, 1985 to 1989, and 1990 to 1994, for the following diagnoses: FSGS, membranous nephropathy (MN), minimal change nephropathy (MCN), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and chronic interstitial nephritis. Patients with secondary causes for these lesions were excluded. The relative frequency of FSGS increased from 13.7% during 1975 to 1979 to 25% during 1990 to 1994 (P < 0.05). The relative frequency of MN decreased from 38.3% during 1975 to 1979 to 14.5% during 1990 to 1994 (P < 0.01). There were no changes in the frequencies of MCN, MPGN, IgA nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, or chronic interstitial nephritis over the 20-year period. However, there was a significant increase in the percentage of blacks with FSGS, from 0% in 1975 to 1979 to 22.6% in 1990 to 1994, and an increased percentage of Hispanics with FSGS, from 0% in 1975 to 1979 to 21.3% in 1990 to 1994 (P < 0.05). The modest increase in whites with FSGS did not reach statistical significance. The incidence of MN in blacks and whites decreased over the 20-year period. In the last 5 years, 15 patients per year had FSGS compared with 7 patients per year with MN (P < 0.05). No changes in age or sex between groups or over time accounted for these results. We conclude that FSGS is now diagnosed twice as often as MN and is the most common idiopathic glomerular disease at our hospital. Reasons for this increase include the emergence of FSGS in both Hispanics and blacks, with a modest increase of FSGS in whites. The increase in FSGS in the three most common races in our community suggests that factors other than genetic, perhaps environmental, have a role in the pathogenesis of FSGS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2013
                February 2013
                22 January 2013
                : 37
                : 1
                : 74-83
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine and bKidney Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, cDepartment of Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Ho Jun Chin, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-707 (Republic of Korea), E-Mail mednep@snubh.org
                Article
                345960 Am J Nephrol 2013;37:74–83
                10.1159/000345960
                23343855
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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