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      Upregulation of Taurine Biosynthesis and Bile Acid Conjugation with Taurine through FXR in a Mouse Model with Human-like Bile Acid Composition

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      Metabolites
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Taurine, the end product in the sulfur-containing amino acid pathway, is conjugated with bile acids (BAs) in the liver. The rate-limiting enzymes in both taurine synthesis and BA conjugation may be regulated by a nucleus receptor, FXR, that promotes BA homeostasis. However, it is controversial because BAs act as natural FXR agonists or antagonists in humans and mice, respectively, due to the species differences in BA synthesis. The present study evaluated the influences of different BA compositions on both pathways in the liver by comparing Cyp2a12−/−/Cyp2c70−/− mice with a human-like BA composition (DKO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The DKO liver contains abundant natural FXR agonistic BAs, and the taurine-conjugated BA proportion and the taurine concentration were significantly increased, while the total BA concentration was significantly decreased compared to those in the WT liver with natural FXR antagonistic BAs. The mRNA expression levels of the enzymes Bacs and Baat in BA aminations and Cdo and Fmo1 in the taurine synthesis, as well as Fxr and its target gene, Shp, were significantly higher in the DKO liver than in the WT liver. The present study, using a model with a human-like BA composition in the liver, confirmed, for the first time in mice, that both the taurine synthesis and BA amidation pathways are upregulated by FXR activation.

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          Most cited references62

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          Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids.

          Bile acids are essential for the solubilization and transport of dietary lipids and are the major products of cholesterol catabolism. Results presented here show that bile acids are physiological ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), an orphan nuclear receptor. When bound to bile acids, FXR repressed transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, and activated the gene encoding intestinal bile acid-binding protein, which is a candidate bile acid transporter. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate their biosynthesis and enterohepatic transport.
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            Gut microbiota regulates bile acid metabolism by reducing the levels of tauro-beta-muricholic acid, a naturally occurring FXR antagonist.

            Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the ileum and liver. Here we profiled the bile acid composition throughout the enterohepatic system in germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. We confirmed a dramatic reduction in muricholic acid, but not cholic acid, levels in CONV-R mice. Rederivation of Fxr-deficient mice as GF demonstrated that the gut microbiota regulated expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 in the ileum and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver by FXR-dependent mechanisms. Importantly, we identified tauro-conjugated beta- and alpha-muricholic acids as FXR antagonists. These studies suggest that the gut microbiota not only regulates secondary bile acid metabolism but also inhibits bile acid synthesis in the liver by alleviating FXR inhibition in the ileum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Physiological actions of taurine

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                METALU
                Metabolites
                Metabolites
                MDPI AG
                2218-1989
                July 2023
                July 05 2023
                : 13
                : 7
                : 824
                Article
                10.3390/metabo13070824
                a9a542e1-bfaa-4dee-9b9e-a6d4c6da428a
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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