Struvite stones constitute only about 2–3% of the stones reaching the laboratory for analysis, but the clinical problems they create including sepsis and even renal demise are greater than with any other stone type. This article reviews the evidence that bacterial urease, usually from a Proteus species, is responsible for the chemical changes in urine which result in struvite formation. Available urease inhibitors and other forms of medical management of patients with these stones are discussed. A patient with struvite stones should be assumed to have a progressive disease which cannot be ignored. Even after seemingly successful elimination of stones with lithotripsy and/or percutaneous nephrolithotomy, careful medical follow-up is critical. The medical profession is probably underutilizing postprocedure hemiacidrin irrigation because of shortsighted financial considerations. Primary-care physicians need to be educated in the importance of aggressive management of Proteus and other urea-splitting infections.