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      Why women choose to deliver at home in India: a study of prevalence, factors, and socio-economic inequality

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          Abstract

          Background

          To promote institutional delivery, the Government of India, through the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program, gives monetary reward to all pregnant women who give birth at the government or private health center. Despite providing cash assistance, a higher number of women are still preferring delivering at home. Therefore, this study sought to determine the prevalence of home births and identifying the factors influencing women’s choice of home deliveries.

          Methods

          Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 2005–06 and 2015–16 were used in the study. The respondents were women 15–49 years; a sample of 36,850 and 190,898 women in 2005–06 and 2015–16 respectively were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors influencing home delivery. Income-related inequality in home delivery was quantified by the concentration index (CI) and the concentration curve (CC), and decomposition analysis was used to examine the inequality in the prevalence of home deliveries.

          Results

          The prevalence of home deliveries has reduced from 58.5% in 2005–06 to 18.9% in 2015–16. The odds of delivering babies at home were lower among women who had full ANC in 2005–06 [AOR: 0.34; CI: 0.28–0.41] and in 2015–16 [AOR: 0.41; CI: 0.38–0.45] and were higher among women with four or higher parity in 2005–06 [AOR: 1.70; CI: 1.49–1.92] and in 2015–19 [AOR: 2.16; CI: 2.03–2.30]. Furthermore, the odds of delivering babies at home were higher among rural women and were lower among women with higher education. It was found that the value of CI increased from − 0.25 to − 0.39 from 2005-06 to 2015–16; this depicts that women delivering babies at home got more concentrated among women from lower socio-economic status.

          Conclusion

          There is a need to promote institutional deliveries, particular focus to be given to poor women, women with higher parity, uneducated women, and rural women. ANC is the most concurring contact point for mothers to get relevant information about the risks and complications they may encounter during delivery. Therefore, effort should be directed to provide full ANC. Targeted interventions are called for to bring improvements in rural areas.

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          Most cited references53

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          Too far to walk: Maternal mortality in context

          The Prevention of Maternal Mortality Program is a collaborative effort of Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health and multidisciplinary teams of researchers from Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Program goals include dissemination of information to those concerned with preventing maternal deaths. This review, which presents findings from a broad body of research, is part of that activity. While there are numerous factors that contribute to maternal mortality, we focus on those that affect the interval between the onset of obstetric complication and its outcome. If prompt, adequate treatment is provided, the outcome will usually be satisfactory; therefore, the outcome is most adversely affected by delayed treatment. We examine research on the factors that: (1) delay the decision to seek care; (2) delay arrival at a health facility; and (3) delay the provision of adequate care. The literature clearly indicates that while distance and cost are major obstacles in the decision to seek care, the relationships are not simple. There is evidence that people often consider the quality of care more important than cost. These three factors--distance, cost and quality--alone do not give a full understanding of decision-making process. Their salience as obstacles is ultimately defined by illness-related factors, such as severity. Differential use of health services is also shaped by such variables as gender and socioeconomic status. Patients who make a timely decision to seek care can still experience delay, because the accessibility of health services is an acute problem in the developing world. In rural areas, a woman with an obstetric emergency may find the closest facility equipped only for basic treatments and education, and she may have no way to reach a regional center where resources exist. Finally, arriving at the facility may not lead to the immediate commencement of treatment. Shortages of qualified staff, essential drugs and supplies, coupled with administrative delays and clinical mismanagement, become documentable contributors to maternal deaths. Findings from the literature review are discussed in light of their implications for programs. Options for health programs are offered and examples of efforts to reduce maternal deaths are presented, with an emphasis on strategies to mobilize and adapt existing resources.
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            National, regional, and global levels and trends in neonatal mortality between 1990 and 2017, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis

            Summary Background Reducing neonatal mortality is an essential part of the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), to end preventable child deaths. To achieve this aim will require an understanding of the levels of and trends in neonatal mortality. We therefore aimed to estimate the levels of and trends in neonatal mortality by use of a statistical model that can be used to assess progress in the SDG era. With these estimates of neonatal mortality between 1990 and 2017, we then aimed to assess how different targets for neonatal mortality could affect the burden of neonatal mortality from 2018 to 2030. Methods In this systematic analysis, we used nationally-representative empirical data related to neonatal mortality, including data from vital registration systems, sample registration systems, and household surveys, to estimate country-specific neonatal mortality rates (NMR; the probability of dying during the first 28 days of life) for all countries between 1990 (or the earliest year of available data) and 2017. For our analysis, we used all publicly available data on neonatal mortality from databases compiled annually by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, which were extracted on or before July 31, 2018, for data relating to the period between 1950 and 2017. All nationally representative data were assessed. We used a Bayesian hierarchical penalised B-splines regression model, which allowed for data from different sources to be weighted differently, to account for variable biases and for the uncertainty in NMR to be assessed. The model simultaneously estimated a global association between NMR and under-5 mortality rate and country-specific and time-specific effects, which enabled us to identify countries with an NMR that was higher or lower than expected. Scenario-based projections were made at the county level by use of current levels of and trends in neonatal mortality and historic or annual rates of reduction that would be required to achieve national targets. The main outcome that we assessed was the levels of and trends in neonatal mortality and the global and regional NMRs from 1990 to 2017. Findings Between 1990 and 2017, the global NMR decreased by 51% (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 46–54), from 36·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths (35·5–37·8) in 1990, to 18·0 deaths per 1000 livebirths (17·0–19·9) in 2017. The estimated number of neonatal deaths during the same period decreased from 5·0 million (4·9 million–5·2 million) to 2·5 million (2·4 million–2·8 million). Annual NMRs vary widely across the world, but west and central Africa and south Asia had the highest NMRs in 2017. All regions have reported reductions in NMRs since 1990, and most regions accelerated progress in reducing neonatal mortality in 2000–17 versus 1990–2000. Between 2018 and 2030, we project that 27·8 million children will die in their first month of life if each country maintains its current rate of reduction in NMR. If each country achieves the SDG neonatal mortality target of 12 deaths per 1000 livebirths or fewer by 2030, we project 22·7 million cumulative neonatal deaths by 2030. More than 60 countries need to accelerate their progress to reach the neonatal mortality SDG target by 2030. Interpretation Although substantial progress has been made in reducing neonatal mortality since 1990, increased efforts to improve progress are still needed to achieve the SDG target by 2030. Accelerated improvements are most needed in the regions and countries with high NMR, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United States Agency for International Development.
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              India's Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer programme to increase births in health facilities: an impact evaluation.

              In 2005, with the goal of reducing the numbers of maternal and neonatal deaths, the Government of India launched Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a conditional cash transfer scheme, to incentivise women to give birth in a health facility. We independently assessed the effect of JSY on intervention coverage and health outcomes. We used data from the nationwide district-level household surveys done in 2002-04 and 2007-09 to assess receipt of financial assistance from JSY as a function of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics; and used three analytical approaches (matching, with-versus-without comparison, and differences in differences) to assess the effect of JSY on antenatal care, in-facility births, and perinatal, neonatal, and maternal deaths. Implementation of JSY in 2007-08 was highly variable by state-from less than 5% to 44% of women giving birth receiving cash payments from JSY. The poorest and least educated women did not always have the highest odds of receiving JSY payments. JSY had a significant effect on increasing antenatal care and in-facility births. In the matching analysis, JSY payment was associated with a reduction of 3.7 (95% CI 2.2-5.2) perinatal deaths per 1000 pregnancies and 2.3 (0.9-3.7) neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths. In the with-versus-without comparison, the reductions were 4.1 (2.5-5.7) perinatal deaths per 1000 pregnancies and 2.4 (0.7-4.1) neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths. The findings of this assessment are encouraging, but they also emphasise the need for improved targeting of the poorest women and attention to quality of obstetric care in health facilities. Continued independent monitoring and evaluations are important to measure the effect of JSY as financial and political commitment to the programme intensifies. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                shekhariips2486@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                2 October 2021
                2 October 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 1785
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.419349.2, ISNI 0000 0001 0613 2600, Department of Public Health and Mortality Studies, , International Institute for Population Sciences, ; Mumbai, India
                [2 ]GRID grid.419349.2, ISNI 0000 0001 0613 2600, Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, , International Institute for Population Sciences, ; Mumbai, India
                [3 ]GRID grid.419349.2, ISNI 0000 0001 0613 2600, Department of Population Policies and Programmes, , International Institute for Population Sciences, ; Mumbai, India
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5371-7369
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5347-1867
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7138-4916
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4259-820X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6926-7649
                Article
                11779
                10.1186/s12889-021-11779-5
                8487549
                34600528
                aa1191cc-d418-48f6-8e85-14dae84d8b7b
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 12 January 2021
                : 13 September 2021
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Public health
                place of delivery,home delivery,socio-economic inequality,india
                Public health
                place of delivery, home delivery, socio-economic inequality, india

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