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      PUMA mediates the combinational therapy of 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 in colon cancer

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          Abstract

          Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in humans which has a high mortality rate, and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most widely used drugs in colon cancer therapy. However, acquired chemoresistance is becoming the major challenges for patients, and the molecular mechanism underlying the development of 5-FU resistance is still poorly understood. In this study, a newly designed therapy in combination with 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 in colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and RKO) was established, to investigate the mechanism of 5-FU resistance and optimize drug therapy to improve outcome for patients. Our results show 5-FU induced cell apoptosis through p53/PUMA pathway, with aberrant Akt activation, which may well explain the mechanism of 5-FU resistance. NVP-BEZ235 effectively up-regulated PUMA expression, mainly through inactivation of PI3K/Akt and activation of FOXO3a, leading to cell apoptosis even in the p53 −/− HCT-116 cells. Combination treatment of 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 further increased cell apoptosis in a PUMA/Bax dependent manner. Moreover, significantly enhanced anti-tumor effects were observed in combination treatment in vivo. Together, these results demonstrated that the combination treatment of 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 caused PUMA-dependent tumor suppression both in vitro and in vivo, which may promise a more effective strategy for colon cancer therapy.

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          Most cited references33

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          Cell death: critical control points.

          Programmed cell death is a distinct genetic and biochemical pathway essential to metazoans. An intact death pathway is required for successful embryonic development and the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis has proven to be tightly interwoven with other essential cell pathways. The identification of critical control points in the cell death pathway has yielded fundamental insights for basic biology, as well as provided rational targets for new therapeutics.
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            Identification and characterization of NVP-BEZ235, a new orally available dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor with potent in vivo antitumor activity.

            The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) pathway is often constitutively activated in human tumor cells, providing unique opportunities for anticancer therapeutic intervention. NVP-BEZ235 is an imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline derivative that inhibits PI3K and mTOR kinase activity by binding to the ATP-binding cleft of these enzymes. In cellular settings using human tumor cell lines, this molecule is able to effectively and specifically block the dysfunctional activation of the PI3K pathway, inducing G(1) arrest. The cellular activity of NVP-BEZ235 translates well in in vivo models of human cancer. Thus, the compound was well tolerated, displayed disease stasis when administered orally, and enhanced the efficacy of other anticancer agents when used in in vivo combination studies. Ex vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses of tumor tissues showed a time-dependent correlation between compound concentration and PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition. Collectively, the preclinical data show that NVP-BEZ235 is a potent dual PI3K/mTOR modulator with favorable pharmaceutical properties. NVP-BEZ235 is currently in phase I clinical trials.
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              PUMA, a novel proapoptotic gene, is induced by p53.

              The p53 tumor-suppressor protein functions as a transcriptional activator, and several p53-inducible genes that play a role in the induction of apoptosis in response to p53 have been described. We have identified a novel gene named PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) as a target for activation by p53. This gene encodes two BH3 domain-containing proteins (PUMA-alpha and PUMA-beta) that are induced in cells following p53 activation. PUMA-alpha and PUMA-beta show similar activities; they bind to Bcl-2, localize to the mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release, and activate the rapid induction of programmed cell death. Antisense inhibition of PUMA expression reduced the apoptotic response to p53, and PUMA is likely to play a role in mediating p53-induced cell death through the cytochrome c/Apaf-1-dependent pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                10 June 2015
                2 May 2015
                : 6
                : 16
                : 14385-14398
                Affiliations
                1 The Clinical Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
                2 Department of Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China
                3 Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
                4 Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Yingjie Zhang, zhyj0829@ 123456163.com
                [*]

                These authors have contributed equally as first authors

                [**]

                These authors have contributed equally as last authors

                Article
                10.18632/oncotarget.3775
                4546474
                25965911
                ad2eb5ce-0cb6-435b-a1f6-f4253c983f5f
                Copyright: © 2015 Wang et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 14 November 2014
                : 20 April 2015
                Categories
                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                colon cancer,nvp-bez235,puma,akt,p53
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                colon cancer, nvp-bez235, puma, akt, p53

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