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      Rationale and surgical technique of laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy using endoscopic staples

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) has been widely accepted due to benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Some surgeons prefer to isolate glissonian pedicles to segments II and III and to control individual pedicles with surgical clips, whereas opt like to control glissonian pedicles simultaneously using endoscopic stapling devices. The aim of this study was to find the rationale of LLLS using endoscopic staples.

          Methods

          We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical outcomes (operation time, drainage length, transfusion, hospital stay, and complication rate) of 35 patients that underwent LLLS between April 2004 and February 2012. Patients were dichotomized by surgical technique based on whether glissonian pedicles were isolated and controlled (the individual group, n = 21) or controlled using endoscopic staples at once (the batch group, n = 14).

          Results

          Mean operation time was 265.3 ± 21.3 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the individual group and 170 ± 22.9 minutes in the batch group. Operation time in the batch group was significantly shorter than the individual group (P = 0.007). Mean drainage length was 4.8 ± 1.6 and 2.6 ± 1.5 days in the individual and the batch group. There was significantly shorter in the batch group, also (P = 0.006). No transfusion was required in the batch group, but 4 patients in the individual group needed transfusion. Mean hospital stay was 10.7 ± 1.1 and 9.4 ± 0.8 days in the individual and the batch groups (P = 0.460). There were no significant complications or mortality in both groups.

          Conclusion

          LLLS using endoscopic staples (batch group) was found to be an easier and safer technique without morbidity or mortality.

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          Most cited references 19

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          The international position on laparoscopic liver surgery: The Louisville Statement, 2008.

          To summarize the current world position on laparoscopic liver surgery. Multiple series have reported on the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic liver surgery. Small and medium sized procedures have become commonplace in many centers, while major laparoscopic liver resections have been performed with efficacy and safety equaling open surgery in highly specialized centers. Although the field has begun to expand rapidly, no consensus meeting has been convened to discuss the evolving field of laparoscopic liver surgery. On November 7 to 8, 2008, 45 experts in hepatobiliary surgery were invited to participate in a consensus conference convened in Louisville, KY, US. In addition, over 300 attendees were present from 5 continents. The conference was divided into sessions, with 2 moderators assigned to each, so as to stimulate discussion and highlight controversies. The format of the meeting varied from formal presentation of experiential data to expert opinion debates. Written and video records of the presentations were produced. Specific areas of discussion included indications for surgery, patient selection, surgical techniques, complications, patient safety, and surgeon training. The consensus conference used the terms pure laparoscopy, hand-assisted laparoscopy, and the hybrid technique to define laparoscopic liver procedures. Currently acceptable indications for laparoscopic liver resection are patients with solitary lesions, 5 cm or less, located in liver segments 2 to 6. The laparoscopic approach to left lateral sectionectomy should be considered standard practice. Although all types of liver resection can be performed laparoscopically, major liver resections (eg, right or left hepatectomies) should be reserved for experienced surgeons facile with more advanced laparoscopic hepatic resections. Conversion should be performed for difficult resections requiring extended operating times, and for patient safety, and should be considered prudent surgical practice rather than failure. In emergent situations, efforts should be made to control bleeding before converting to a formal open approach. Utilization of a hand assist or hybrid technique may be faster, safer, and more efficacious. Indications for surgery for benign hepatic lesions should not be widened simply because the surgery can be done laparoscopically. Although data presented on colorectal metastases did not reveal an adverse effect of the laparoscopic approach on oncological outcomes in terms of margins or survival, adequacy of margins and ability to detect occult lesions are concerns. The pure laparoscopic technique of left lateral sectionectomy was used for adult to child donation while the hybrid approach has been the only one reported to date in the case of adult to adult right lobe donation. Laparoscopic liver surgery has not been tested by controlled trials for efficacy or safety. A prospective randomized trial appears to be logistically prohibitive; however, an international registry should be initiated to document the role and safety of laparoscopic liver resection. Laparoscopic liver surgery is a safe and effective approach to the management of surgical liver disease in the hands of trained surgeons with experience in hepatobiliary and laparoscopic surgery. National and international societies, as well as governing boards, should become involved in the goal of establishing training standards and credentialing, to ensure consistent standards and clinical outcomes.
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            Laparoscopic anatomical (hepatic) left lateral segmentectomy-technical aspects.

            Laparoscopic liver surgery is a tremendous challenge. The authors report a left liver lobectomy and removal by a total laparoscopic approach. Anatomical left lateral laparoscopic segmentectomy was performed on a woman who had a symptomatic hepatic adenoma. The patient was discharged after an uncomplicated postoperative recovery; the hospital stay and convalescence period were very short. The cosmetic result was good.
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              Laparoscopic versus open left lateral hepatic lobectomy: a case-control study.

              After technical advances in hepatic surgery and laparoscopic surgery, some teams evaluated the possibilities of laparoscopic liver resections. The aim of our study was to assess the results of laparoscopic left lateral lobectomy (bisegmentectomy 2-3) and to perform a case-control comparison with the same operation performed by open surgery. From 1996 to 2002, 60 laparoscopic resections were performed in selected patients, including 18 left lateral lobectomies. The resected lesions were benign tumors, hepatocellular carcinomas with compensated cirrhosis, and metastases. Surgical procedures were performed with a harmonic scalpel, an ultrasonic dissector, linear staplers, and portal pedicule clamping when necessary. Results were compared with those of patients who underwent open left lateral lobectomies selected from our liver resection database in a case-control analysis. Both groups were similar for age, type and size of the tumor, and presence of underlying liver disease. Compared with laparotomy, laparoscopic left lateral lobectomies were associated with a longer surgical time (202 versus 145 minutes, p < 0.01), a longer portal triad clamping (39 versus 23 minutes, p < 0.05), and a decreased blood loss (236 versus 429 mL, p < 0.05). There were no deaths in either group, and the morbidity rates were 11% in the laparoscopic group and 15% in the open group. There were no specific complications of hepatic resection after laparoscopy (no hemorrhage, subphrenic collection, or biliary leak), but some were observed in the open group. This study demonstrates the safety of laparoscopic left lateral lobectomy. Despite longer operation and clamping time, without any clinical consequences, the laparoscopic approach was associated with decreased blood loss and absence of specific complications of the hepatic resection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Surg Treat Res
                Ann Surg Treat Res
                ASTR
                Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
                The Korean Surgical Society
                2288-6575
                2288-6796
                August 2014
                29 July 2014
                : 87
                : 2
                : 66-71
                10.4174/astr.2014.87.2.66
                4127897
                Copyright © 2014, the Korean Surgical Society

                Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                laparoscopy, hepatectomy, surgical staples

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