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Electrochemical fabrication of conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibrils on microfabricated neural prosthetic devices

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      Most cited references 18

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      Stimulation of neurite outgrowth using an electrically conducting polymer.

      Damage to peripheral nerves often cannot be repaired by the juxtaposition of the severed nerve ends. Surgeons have typically used autologous nerve grafts, which have several drawbacks including the need for multiple surgical procedures and loss of function at the donor site. As an alternative, the use of nerve guidance channels to bridge the gap between severed nerve ends is being explored. In this paper, the electrically conductive polymer--oxidized polypyrrole (PP)--has been evaluated for use as a substrate to enhance nerve cell interactions in culture as a first step toward potentially using such polymers to stimulate in vivo nerve regeneration. Image analysis demonstrates that PC-12 cells and primary chicken sciatic nerve explants attached and extended neurites equally well on both PP films and tissue culture polystyrene in the absence of electrical stimulation. In contrast, PC-12 cells interacted poorly with indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) surfaces. However, PC-12 cells cultured on PP films and subjected to an electrical stimulus through the film showed a significant increase in neurite lengths compared with ones that were not subjected to electrical stimulation through the film and tissue culture polystyrene controls. The median neurite length for PC-12 cells grown on PP and subjected to an electrical stimulus was 18.14 micron (n = 5643) compared with 9.5 micron (n = 4440) for controls. Furthermore, animal implantation studies reveal that PP invokes little adverse tissue response compared with poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid).
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        Conducting polymer artificial muscles

         R.H. Baughman (1996)
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          Chronic neural recordings using silicon microelectrode arrays electrochemically deposited with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film.

           J Yang,  J Uram,  Daryl Kipke (2006)
          Conductive polymer coatings can be used to modify traditional electrode recording sites with the intent of improving the long-term performance of cortical microelectrodes. Conductive polymers can drastically decrease recording site impedance, which in turn is hypothesized to reduce thermal noise and signal loss through shunt pathways. Moreover, conductive polymers can be seeded with agents aimed at promoting neural growth toward the recording sites or minimizing the inherent immune response. The end goal of these efforts is to generate an ideal long-term interface between the recording electrode and surrounding tissue. The goal of this study was to refine a method to electrochemically deposit surfactant-templated ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films on the recording sites of standard 'Michigan' probes and to evaluate the efficacy of these modified sites in recording chronic neural activity. PEDOT-coated site performance was compared to control sites over a six-week evaluation period in terms of impedance spectroscopy, signal-to-noise ratio, number of viable unit potentials recorded and local field potential recordings. PEDOT sites were found to outperform control sites with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and number of viable unit potentials. The benefit of reduced initial impedance, however, was mitigated by the impedance contribution of typical silicon electrode encapsulation. Coating sites with PEDOT also reduced the amount of low-frequency drift evident in local field potential recordings. These findings indicate that electrode sites electrochemically deposited with PEDOT films are suitable for recording neural activity in vivo for extended periods. This study also provided a unique opportunity to monitor how neural recording characteristics develop over the six weeks following implantation.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition
            Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition
            Brill Academic Publishers
            0920-5063
            1568-5624
            January 2007
            January 2007
            : 18
            : 8
            : 1075-1089
            10.1163/156856207781494359
            © 2007

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