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      Contribution of Tumor Endothelial Cells in Cancer Progression

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          Abstract

          Tumor progression depends on the process of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels. These newly formed blood vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to the tumor, supporting its progression and providing a gateway for tumor metastasis. Tumor angiogenesis is regulated by the balance between angiogenic activators and inhibitors within the tumor microenvironment. Because the newly formed tumor blood vessels originate from preexisting normal vessels, tumor blood vessels, and tumor endothelial cells (TECs) have historically been considered to be the same as normal blood vessels and endothelial cells; however, evidence of TECs’ distinctive abnormal phenotypes has increased. In addition, it has been revealed that TECs constitute a heterogeneous population. Thus, TECs that line tumor blood vessels are important targets in cancer therapy. We have previously reported that TECs induce cancer metastasis. In this review, we describe recent studies on TEC abnormalities related to cancer progression to provide insight into new anticancer therapies.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Randomized phase II trial comparing bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel with carboplatin and paclitaxel alone in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

          To investigate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. In a phase II trial, 99 patients were randomly assigned to bevacizumab 7.5 (n = 32) or 15 mg/kg (n = 35) plus carboplatin (area under the curve = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks or carboplatin and paclitaxel alone (n = 32). Primary efficacy end points were time to disease progression and best confirmed response rate. On disease progression, patients in the control arm had the option to receive single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Compared with the control arm, treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) resulted in a higher response rate (31.5% v 18.8%), longer median time to progression (7.4 v 4.2 months) and a modest increase in survival (17.7 v 14.9 months). Of the 19 control patients that crossed over to single-agent bevacizumab, five experienced stable disease, and 1-year survival was 47%. Bleeding was the most prominent adverse event and was manifested in two distinct clinical patterns; minor mucocutaneous hemorrhage and major hemoptysis. Major hemoptysis was associated with squamous cell histology, tumor necrosis and cavitation, and disease location close to major blood vessels. Bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel improved overall response and time to progression in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with nonsquamous cell histology appear to be a subpopulation with improved outcome and acceptable safety risks.
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            Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid

             D Senger,  S Galli,  A. Dvorak (1983)
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              Glioblastoma stem cells generate vascular pericytes to support vessel function and tumor growth.

              Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly vascular and lethal brain tumors that display cellular hierarchies containing self-renewing tumorigenic glioma stem cells (GSCs). Because GSCs often reside in perivascular niches and may undergo mesenchymal differentiation, we interrogated GSC potential to generate vascular pericytes. Here, we show that GSCs give rise to pericytes to support vessel function and tumor growth. In vivo cell lineage tracing with constitutive and lineage-specific fluorescent reporters demonstrated that GSCs generate the majority of vascular pericytes. Selective elimination of GSC-derived pericytes disrupts the neovasculature and potently inhibits tumor growth. Analysis of human GBM specimens showed that most pericytes are derived from neoplastic cells. GSCs are recruited toward endothelial cells via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and are induced to become pericytes predominantly by transforming growth factor β. Thus, GSCs contribute to vascular pericytes that may actively remodel perivascular niches. Therapeutic targeting of GSC-derived pericytes may effectively block tumor progression and improve antiangiogenic therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                24 April 2018
                May 2018
                : 19
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Vascular Biology, Frontier Research Unit, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan; mnako@ 123456igm.hokudai.ac.jp (N.M.); annandorcasam@ 123456gmail.com (D.A.A.)
                [2 ]Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan; yhida@ 123456med.hokudai.ac.jp
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: khida@ 123456igm.hokudai.ac.jp ; Tel./Fax: +81-11-706-4315
                Article
                ijms-19-01272
                10.3390/ijms19051272
                5983794
                29695087
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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