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      Urea Reduction Ratio Considering Urea Rebound

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          Abstract

          An American National Study shows that survival benefits from higher dialysis doses appear to be present up to a Kt/V level of 1.3 or a urea reduction ratio (URR) of 70%. The effect of increasing dialysis efficiency magnified urea rebound and the error in URR determinations. Several formulas have been developed to calculate URR considering the urea rebound (URRr). Smye and coworkers have proposed a method whereby the equilibrated blood urea nitrogen is predicted by additional intradialytic urea sample. Maduell and colleagues, based on analysis of postdialysis urea rebound, have proposed a method whereby the urea rebound is predicted. To compare measured URRr to estimated by Smye and Maduell formulas, 384 patients were studied, 211 males and 173 females, who received a dialysis session with their habitual parameters. Measurements of plasma urea concentration were obtained at the beginning, 90–100 min following the start of dialysis, at the end, and 45 min after dialysis. The postdialysis urea rebound was 22.4 ± 9.7%. The urea kinetic model Kt/V was 1.365 ± 0.26, and Kt/Vr was 1.14 ± 0.23. URR was 68.7 ± 6.6%, and when it was calculated with urea rebound, it decreased to 61.9 ± 7.4%. The URRr correlated with calculations by Smye and Maduell formulas: 60.7 ± 8.4 (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and 61.8 ± 6.6 (r = 0.933, p < 0.001), respectively. The precision of estimated limits of agreement and percentage of error by Bland and Altman analysis show that URRr estimated Maduell formula could be used in place of the URRr. Otherwise, the degree of agreement of the Smye method was not clinically acceptable. In conclusion, our results led us to suggest that in actual dialysis, the use of URR is not adequate for delivered hemodialysis dose, and URRr should be used. URRr estimated by Maduell formula could be a simple and accurate method for use in clinical practice. The recommended dialysis dose by the American National Study of URR of 70% could correspond, considering urea rebound, to Kt/Vr 1.18 or URRr of 64%.

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          Most cited references 2

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          The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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            Paediatric haemodialysis: estimation of treatment efficiency in the presence of urea rebound

             S. W. Smye,  J. EVANS,  E Will (1992)
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              1998
              February 1998
              26 January 1998
              : 78
              : 2
              : 143-147
              Affiliations
              Nephrology Departments, a Hospital General de Castellón, b Hospital Clínico de Granada, c Hospital de Gandia, d Hospital de Xàtiva, e Hospital de Alcoy, f Hemogan, Gandia, g Hospital General de Valencia, h Cedicas, Castellón, Spain
              Article
              44902 Nephron 1998;78:143–147
              10.1159/000044902
              9496729
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/44902
              Categories
              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Urea reduction ratio, Hemodialysis dose, Urea rebound

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