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      The Problem of Curcumin and Its Bioavailability: Could Its Gastrointestinal Influence Contribute to Its Overall Health-Enhancing Effects?

      Advances in Nutrition
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          <p id="d2722302e123">Curcumin, from the spice turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin's clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been dedicated to developing curcumin formulations with greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. However, it is proposed in this review that curcumin's potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability, but rather its medicinal benefits may also arise from its positive influence on gastrointestinal health and function. In this review, in vitro, animal, and human studies investigating the effects of curcumin on intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability, gut inflammation and oxidative stress, anaphylactic response, and bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections are summarized. It is argued that positive changes in these areas can have wide-ranging influences on both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases, and therefore presents as a possible mechanism behind curcumin's therapeutic efficacy. </p>

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          Most cited references62

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          Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health

          The colon is inhabited by a dense population of microorganisms, the so-called “gut microbiota,” able to ferment carbohydrates and proteins that escape absorption in the small intestine during digestion. This microbiota produces a wide range of metabolites, including short chain fatty acids (SCFA). These compounds are absorbed in the large bowel and are defined as 1-6 carbon volatile fatty acids which can present straight or branched-chain conformation. Their production is influenced by the pattern of food intake and diet-mediated changes in the gut microbiota. SCFA have distinct physiological effects: they contribute to shaping the gut environment, influence the physiology of the colon, they can be used as energy sources by host cells and the intestinal microbiota and they also participate in different host-signaling mechanisms. We summarize the current knowledge about the production of SCFA, including bacterial cross-feedings interactions, and the biological properties of these metabolites with impact on the human health.
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            Candida albicans morphogenesis and host defence: discriminating invasion from colonization.

            Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen of humans that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces of most healthy individuals. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms by which mucosal antifungal defences tolerate colonizing C. albicans but react strongly when hyphae of the same microorganism attempt to invade tissue. In this Review, we describe the properties of yeast cells and hyphae that are relevant to their interaction with the host, and the immunological mechanisms that differentially recognize colonizing versus invading C. albicans.
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              Psychological stress and corticotropin-releasing hormone increase intestinal permeability in humans by a mast cell-dependent mechanism.

              Intestinal permeability and psychological stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of IBD and IBS. Studies in animals suggest that stress increases permeability via corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated mast cell activation. Our aim was to investigate the effect of stress on intestinal permeability in humans and its underlying mechanisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Nutrition
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                2161-8313
                2156-5376
                January 2018
                January 01 2018
                February 09 2018
                January 2018
                January 01 2018
                February 09 2018
                : 9
                : 1
                : 41-50
                Article
                10.1093/advances/nmx011
                6333932
                29438458
                ae4d9a8e-d4cd-4a63-b65b-ae7a7cf92d5a
                © 2018
                History

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