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      Prevalence of Burnout in Healthcare Workers of Tertiary-Care Hospitals during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey from Two Central European Countries

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          Abstract

          COVID-19 has led to an unprecedented strain on healthcare workers (HCWs). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of burnout in hospital employees during a prolonged pandemic-induced burden on healthcare systems. An online survey among employees of a Czech and Slovak university hospital was conducted between November 2021 and January 2022, approximately when the incidence rates peaked in both countries. The Maslach Burnout Inventory—Human Services Survey was applied. We obtained 807 completed questionnaires (75.1% from Czech employees, 91.2% from HCWs, 76.2% from women; mean age of 42.1 ± 11 years). Burnout in emotional exhaustion (EE) was found in 53.2%, depersonalization (DP) in 33%, and personal accomplishment (PA) in 47.8% of respondents. In total, 148 (18.3%) participants showed burnout in all dimensions, 184 (22.8%) in two, and 269 (33.3%) in at least one dimension. Burnout in EE and DP (65% and 43.7%) prevailed in physicians compared to other HCWs (48.6% and 28.8%). Respondents from COVID-19-dedicated units achieved burnout in the EE and DP dimensions with higher rates than non-frontline HCWs (58.1% and 40.9% vs. 49.9% and 27.7%). Almost two years of the previous overloading of healthcare services, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, resulted in the relatively high prevalence of burnout in HCWs, especially in physicians and frontline HCWs.

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          The measurement of experienced burnout

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            Psychosocial impact of COVID-19

            Background Along with its high infectivity and fatality rates, the 2019 Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) has caused universal psychosocial impact by causing mass hysteria, economic burden and financial losses. Mass fear of COVID-19, termed as “coronaphobia”, has generated a plethora of psychiatric manifestations across the different strata of the society. So, this review has been undertaken to define psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Methods Pubmed and GoogleScholar are searched with the following key terms- “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV2”, “Pandemic”, “Psychology”, “Psychosocial”, “Psychitry”, “marginalized”, “telemedicine”, “mental health”, “quarantine”, “infodemic”, “social media” and” “internet”. Few news paper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. Results Disease itself multitude by forced quarantine to combat COVID-19 applied by nationwide lockdowns can produce acute panic, anxiety, obsessive behaviors, hoarding, paranoia, and depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the long run. These have been fueled by an “infodemic” spread via different platforms social media. Outbursts of racism, stigmatization, and xenophobia against particular communities are also being widely reported. Nevertheless, frontline healthcare workers are at higher-risk of contracting the disease as well as experiencing adverse psychological outcomes in form of burnout, anxiety, fear of transmitting infection, feeling of incompatibility, depression, increased substance-dependence, and PTSD. Community-based mitigation programs to combat COVID-19 will disrupt children's usual lifestyle and may cause florid mental distress. The psychosocial aspects of older people, their caregivers, psychiatric patients and marginalized communities are affected by this pandemic in different ways and need special attention. Conclusion For better dealing with these psychosocial issues of different strata of the society, psychosocial crisis prevention and intervention models should be urgently developed by the government, health care personnel and other stakeholders. Apt application of internet services, technology and social media to curb both pandemic and infodemic needs to be instigated. Psychosocial preparedness by setting up mental organizations specific for future pandemics is certainly necessary.
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              Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions

              Physician burnout, a work-related syndrome involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a sense of reduced personal accomplishment, is prevalent internationally. Rates of burnout symptoms that have been associated with adverse effects on patients, the healthcare workforce, costs and physician health exceed 50% in studies of both physicians-in-training and practicing physicians. This problem represents a public health crisis with negative impacts on individual physicians, patients and healthcare organizations and systems. Drivers of this epidemic are largely rooted within healthcare organizations and systems and include excessive workloads, inefficient work processes, clerical burdens, work-home conflicts, lack of input or control for physicians with respect to issues affecting their work lives, organizational support structures and leadership culture. Individual physician-level factors also play a role, with higher rates of burnout commonly reported in female and younger physicians. Effective solutions align with these drivers. For example, organizational efforts such as locally developed practice modifications and increased support for clinical work have demonstrated benefits in reducing burnout. Individually focused solutions such as mindfulness-based stress reduction and small-group programmes to promote community, connectedness and meaning have also been shown to be effective. Regardless of the specific approach taken, the problem of physician burnout is best addressed when viewed as a shared responsibility of both healthcare systems and individual physicians. Although our understanding of physician burnout has advanced considerably in recent years, many gaps in our knowledge remain. Longitudinal studies of burnout's effects and the impact of interventions on both burnout and its effects are needed, as are studies of effective solutions implemented in combination. For medicine to fulfil its mission for patients and for public health, all stakeholders in healthcare delivery must work together to develop and implement effective remedies for physician burnout.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                IJERGQ
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                IJERPH
                MDPI AG
                1660-4601
                February 2023
                February 20 2023
                : 20
                : 4
                : 3720
                Article
                10.3390/ijerph20043720
                9962650
                36834414
                aeeda660-216d-4cde-a002-5fe06ca1bca7
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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