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      Tear cytokine profiles in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the ocular adnexa

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          Most cited references 27

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          Cytokine patterns in patients with cancer: a systematic review.

           B Lippitz (2013)
          Active, but dysfunctional, immune responses in patients with cancer have been studied in several tumour types, but owing to the heterogeneity of cancer theories of common reaction mechanisms seem to be obsolete. In this Review of published clinical studies of patients with cancer, expression and interplay of the following cytokines are examined: interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 12, interleukin 18, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), interferon-γ, HLA-DR, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Clinical data were analysed in a non-quantitative descriptive manner and interpreted with regard to experimentally established physiological cytokine interactions. The clinical cytokine pattern that emerged suggests that simultaneous immunostimulation and immunosuppression occur in patients with cancer, with increased concentrations of the cytokines MIF, TNFα, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 18, and TGFβ. This specific cytokine pattern seems to have a prognostic effect, since high interleukin 6 or interleukin 10 serum concentrations are associated with negative prognoses in independent cancer types. Although immunostimulatory cytokines are involved in local cancer-associated inflammation, cancer cells seem to be protected from immunological eradication by cytokine-mediated local immunosuppression and a resulting defect of the interleukin 12-interferon-γ-HLA-DR axis. Cytokines produced by tumours might have a pivotal role in this defect. A working hypothesis is that the cancer-specific and histology-independent uniform cytokine cascade is one of the manifestations of the underlying paraneoplastic systemic disease, and this hypothesis links the stage of cancer with both the functional status of the immune system and the patient's prognosis. Neutralisation of this cytokine pattern could offer novel and so far unexploited treatment approaches for cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Tear cytokine profiles in dysfunctional tear syndrome.

            To compare tear cytokine and chemokine concentrations in asymptomatic control and Dysfunctional Tear syndrome (DTS) patients and determine the correlations between tear inflammatory mediators and clinical severity. Prospective observational cohort study. Concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin (IL)-1 alpha (1alpha), 1 beta (1beta), 6, 10, 12, and 13, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and chemokines: IL-8 (CXC); macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) (CCL3); and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES CCL5) were measured by a multiplex immunobead assay in an asymptomatic control group and DTS patients with and without meibomian gland disease (MGD). Spearman correlations between tear cytokines and severity of irritation symptoms and ocular surface signs were calculated. Tear concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in DTS with and without MGD and EGF was significantly reduced in the DTS without MGD group compared with the control group. MIP-1alpha was greater in entire DTS and DTS without MGD groups than the control group and RANTES was greater in DTS with MGD than the control and DTS without MGD groups. IL-12 was significantly higher in the DTS with MGD than the DTS without MGD subgroup. Significant correlations were observed between IL-6 and irritation symptoms and between a number of cytokines and chemokines and clinical parameters. As predicted, patients with DTS have higher levels of inflammatory mediators in their tears that show correlation with clinical disease parameters. Furthermore, different tear cytokine/chemokine profiles were observed in DTS patients with and without MGD groups.
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              IL-1 and IL-1 regulatory pathways in cancer progression and therapy

              Inflammation is an important component of the tumor microenvironment. IL-1 is an inflammatory cytokine which plays a key role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. IL-1 is subject to regulation by components of the IL-1 and IL-1 receptor (ILR) families. Negative regulators include a decoy receptor (IL-1R2), receptor antagonists (IL-1Ra), IL-1R8, and anti-inflammatory IL-37. IL-1 acts at different levels in tumor initiation and progression, including driving chronic non-resolving inflammation, tumor angiogenesis, activation of the IL-17 pathway, induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and macrophage recruitment, invasion and metastasis. Based on initial clinical results, the translation potential of IL-1 targeting deserves extensive analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Eye
                Eye
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0950-222X
                1476-5454
                June 28 2021
                Article
                10.1038/s41433-021-01650-7
                © 2021

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