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      A comparative assessment of clinical parameters, sialic acid, and glycosaminoglycans levels in periodontitis patients with and without dental fluorosis: A clinical and biochemical study


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          This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical parameters and the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of sialic acid (SA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) in dental fluorosed and nonfluorosed (NF) gingivitis and periodontitis patients.

          Materials and Methods:

          A total of 100 patients were divided into two control (healthy) and four test (diseased) groups of gingivitis and periodontitis patients with and without dental fluorosis. The GCF-SA and chondrotin sulphate levels were measured using the conventional method and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, respectively.


          The plaque levels (2.9 ± 0.44), gingival bleeding levels (2.75 ± 0.55), and clinical attachment loss (0.44 ± 0.45) between dental fluorosed participants with chronic periodontitis (fluorosed periodontitis [FP]) and NF participants with chronic periodontitis (nonfluorosed periodontitis [NFP]) groups showed no statistically significant difference. Higher probing pocket depth by community periodontal index (CPI) scores of 4 and clinical attachment level CPI score of 1 (75%) was found in FP group when compared to a score of 3 (FP: 24.5% and NFP: 73.5%) of the NFP group. The GCF SA levels (679.05 ± 101.06) were significantly higher in FP group than NFP group (553.80 ± 49.40) ( P = 0.048). Similarly, the GCF CS showed highly significant levels in fluorosis periodontitis (48.08 ± 18.13) group than the NFP group (26.95 ± 8.69).


          Increased pocket depth score, GCF–SA, and CS levels in the dental fluorosed group were observed when compared with NF group. The diagnostic ability of clinical examination is most often supported by the relevant biochemical parameters that are applicable in this study. The newer diagnostic ability of SA is found to be contributory in this study. The diagnostic ability of CS representing tissue destruction served as an important GCF marker along with SA.

          Clinical Relevance:

          In dental fluorosis, estimation of SA and CS is recommended in periodontitis patients.

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          Most cited references18

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          American Academy of Periodontology Task Force Report on the Update to the 1999 Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions.

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            Dental tissue effects of fluoride.

            It is now well-established that a linear relationship exists between fluoride dose and enamel fluorosis in human populations. With increasing severity, the subsurface enamel all along the tooth becomes increasingly porous (hypomineralized), and the lesion extends toward the inner enamel. In dentin, hypomineralization results in an enhancement of the incremental lines. After eruption, the more severe forms are subject to extensive mechanical breakdown of the surface. The continuum of fluoride-induced changes can best be classified by the TF index, which reflects, on an ordinal scale, the histopathological features and increases in enamel fluoride concentrations. Human and animal studies have shown that it is possible to develop dental fluorosis by exposure during enamel maturation alone. It is less apparent whether an effect of fluoride on the stage of enamel matrix secretion, alone, is able to produce changes in enamel similar to those described as dental fluorosis in man. The clinical concept of post-eruptive maturation of erupting sound human enamel, resulting in fluoride uptake, most likely reflects subclinical caries. Incorporation of fluoride into enamel is principally possible only as a result of concomitant enamel dissolution (caries lesion development). At higher fluoride concentrations, calcium-fluoride-like material may form, although the formation, identification, and dissolution of this compound are far from resolved. It is concluded that dental fluorosis is a sensitive way of recording past fluoride exposure because, so far, no other agent or condition in man is known to create changes within the dentition similar to those induced by fluoride. Since the predominant cariostatic effect of fluoride is not due to its uptake by the enamel during tooth development, it is possible to obtain extensive caries reductions without a concomitant risk of dental fluorosis.
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              Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs.

              Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson's fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%,respectively) than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively). Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%), compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%), which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e, with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. The results suggest that there is a strong association of occurrence of periodontal disease in high-fluoride areas. The role of plaque is well understood in contrast to the effect of fluorides on periodontal tissues. It goes a long way to reason out fluoride as an important etiological agent in periodontal disease.

                Author and article information

                J Indian Soc Periodontol
                J Indian Soc Periodontol
                Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                May-Jun 2020
                04 May 2020
                : 24
                : 3
                : 237-243
                [1] Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Kharidi Laxman Vandana, Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka, India. E-mail: vanrajs@ 123456gmail.com

                The work belongs to the Department of Periondontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India

                Copyright: © 2020 Indian Society of Periodontology

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article

                chondroitin sulfate,dental fluorosis,gingival crevicular fluid,periodontitis,sialic acid
                chondroitin sulfate, dental fluorosis, gingival crevicular fluid, periodontitis, sialic acid


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