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      Histologic and Clinical Findings in Living Donor Allografts with Long-Term Stable Function

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Protocol biopsy is an important strategy which assesses the histological changes that can occur in the renal allograft and adversely affect its outcome. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in long-term living donor transplants. Methods: Elective biopsies were done for 120 live donor renal transplant recipients with well-functioning grafts and no rejection history at least 1 year or more after transplant. All patients had serum creatinine levels <2 mg/dl. The histopathological findings using the chronic allograft damage index score were correlated with different clinical and immunological parameters. Results: Chronic tubulointerstitial fibrosis was the most prevalent finding (85% of cases), mostly of mild degree. Normal biopsies were reported in only 7.5% of cases, whereas chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity was detected in 5.8% of biopsies. Posttransplant hypertension was significantly correlated with glomerulosclerosis, and posttransplant diabetes with glomerulosclerosis, mesangial matrix increase, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The main risk factors associated with a high chronic allograft damage index score were DR mismatching, posttransplant diabetes and time of biopsy. All histopathological changes increased with advancing donor age and declining graft function. Conclusion: Elective biopsies showed that histopathological findings do exist even with stable renal function that may pave the way for predicting long-term graft outcome.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

          Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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            The natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy.

            With improved immunosuppression and early allograft survival, chronic allograft nephropathy has become the dominant cause of kidney-transplant failure. We evaluated the natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy in a prospective study of 120 recipients with type 1 diabetes, all but 1 of whom had received kidney-pancreas transplants. We obtained 961 kidney-transplant-biopsy specimens taken regularly from the time of transplantation to 10 years thereafter. Two distinctive phases of injury were evident as chronic allograft nephropathy evolved. An initial phase of early tubulointerstitial damage from ischemic injury (P<0.05), prior severe rejection (P<0.01), and subclinical rejection (P<0.01) predicted mild disease by one year, which was present in 94.2 percent of patients. Early subclinical rejection was common (affecting 45.7 percent of biopsy specimens at three months), and the risk was increased by the occurrence of a prior episode of severe rejection and reduced by tacrolimus and mycophenolate therapy (both P<0.05) and gradually abated after one year. Both subclinical rejection and chronic rejection were associated with increased tubulointerstitial damage (P<0.01). Beyond one year, a later phase of chronic allograft nephropathy was characterized by microvascular and glomerular injury. Chronic rejection (defined as persistent subclinical rejection for two years or longer) was uncommon (5.8 percent). Progressive high-grade arteriolar hyalinosis with luminal narrowing, increasing glomerulosclerosis, and additional tubulointerstitial damage was accompanied by the use of calcineurin inhibitors. Nephrotoxicity, implicated in late ongoing injury, was almost universal at 10 years, even in grafts with excellent early histologic findings. By 10 years, severe chronic allograft nephropathy was present in 58.4 percent of patients, with sclerosis in 37.3 percent of glomeruli. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular damage, once established, was irreversible, resulting in declining renal function and graft failure. Chronic allograft nephropathy represents cumulative and incremental damage to nephrons from time-dependent immunologic and nonimmunologic causes. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Chronic cyclosporine nephropathy: the Achilles' heel of immunosuppressive therapy.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 491-496
                Affiliations
                Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
                Article
                96895 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:491–496
                10.1159/000096895
                17095864
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96895
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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