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      Lopsidedness of self-consistent galaxies by the external field effect of clusters

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          Abstract

          Adopting Schwarzschild's orbit-superposition technique, we construct a series of self-consistent galaxy models, embedded in the external field of galaxy clusters in the framework of Milgrom's MOdified Newtonian Dynamics. These models represent relatively massive ellipticals with a Hernquist radial profile at various distances from the cluster centre. Using \(N\)-body simulations, we perform a first analysis of these models and their evolution. We find that self-gravitating axisymmetric density models, even under a weak external field, lose their symmetry by instability and generally evolve to triaxial configurations. A kinematic analysis suggests that the instability originates from both box and non-classified orbits with low angular momentum. We also consider a self-consistent isolated system which is then placed in a strong external field and allowed to evolve freely. This model, just as the corresponding equilibrium model in the same external field, eventually settles to a triaxial equilibrium as well, but has a higher velocity radial anisotropy and is rounder. The presence of an external field in MOND universe generically predicts some lopsidedness of galaxy shapes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          2017-06-23
          Article
          1706.07825
          b2cc79fe-67db-4900-a6a3-60463f4e9f99

          http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

          History
          Custom metadata
          24 pages, 20 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ
          astro-ph.GA

          Galaxy astrophysics
          Galaxy astrophysics

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