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      Comparison of the Ketamine-Lidocaine and Fentanyl-Lidocaine in Postoperative Analgesia in Axillary Block in Upper Limb Fractures By Ultrasound Guidance

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          Abstract

          Background

          Regional anesthesia provides safe anesthesia for upper extremity surgery. Axillary plexus block approach for hand and forearm surgery is commonly used. The use of adjuvants in combination with local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks enhances the quality and duration of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.

          Methods

          This double-blind clinical trial was performed on 60 patients who were candidates for the surgery of upper extremity fractures with ASA I and II classes. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 30). The intervention group 1 received 4 mg/kg lidocaine 1% and 50 µg fentanyl and the intervention group 2 received 4 mg/kg lidocaine 1% and 30 mg ketamine during the axillary block. After the necessary monitoring, a pinprick test was performed to evaluate sensory block, and a three-point scale test for the motor block was performed for median, ulnar, radial and musculocutaneous nerves. The duration of postoperative analgesia, the time of the first request for a painkiller, and the amount of opioid received were compared in the two groups.

          Results

          Onset of sensory and motor block was shorter in the fentanyl group but did not differ significantly. The sensory and motor block length was slightly higher in the fentanyl group, but no significant difference was observed. The severity of pain (VAS) and the mean of received opioid (pethidine) were significantly lower in the fentanyl group 24 hours after the surgery (P < 0.0001). The duration of postoperative analgesia and the time of the first request for painkiller were longer in the fentanyl group, but there was no significant difference.

          Conclusions

          The severity of pain and analgesic intake in the fentanyl group decreased significantly. Therefore, fentanyl is a better drug than ketamine for using as an adjuvant in the axillary block.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Effects of Adding Ketamine to Fentanyl Plus Acetaminophen on Postoperative Pain by Patient Controlled Analgesia in Abdominal Surgery

          Background: Postoperative pain is one of the most important complications encountered after surgery. A number of options are available for treating pain following surgery. One of those options is the use of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Ketamine is an anesthetic drug relieving pain with its NMDA receptor antagonistic effect. Objectives: This study is aiming at better pain management after abdominal surgery; the effects of adding ketamine to intravenous fentanyl plus acetaminophen PCA were evaluated. Patients and Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial 100 patients, ASA I or II, 20 - 60 years old were divided into two groups. These patients were abdominal surgery candidates. In order to control postoperative pain in the control group an IV patient-control analgesia (PCA) containing fentanyl 10 μg/mL plus acetaminophen 10 mg/mL was instructed to be used for the patients, but the patients in ketamine group received ketamine 0.5 mg/mL plus control group PCA content. During the first 48 hours after surgery, ketamine patients were evaluated every 8 hours (at rest, while moving and coughing) to determine their pain scores using VAS scale, sedation score, additional analgesics, nausea and vomiting. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between two groups. Pain scores (at rest, while moving and coughing) during the first 48 hours were not significantly different between two groups (P values = 0.361, 0.367 and 0.204, respectively). Nausea scores were significantly lower in the ketamine group (P = 0.026). Conclusions: The addition of ketamine to intravenous fentanyl plus acetaminophen PCA had not extra effects in relieving post abdominal surgery pain.
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            Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine prolongs anesthesia and analgesia in axillary brachial plexus block.

            To evaluate the analgesic and anesthetic effects of 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25%, 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% plus fentanyl 2.5 microg/mL, and 40 mL bupivacaine 0.125% plus fentanyl 2.5 microg/mL for axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to 3 groups and received axillary brachial plexus block with 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% (group B), 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% with fentanyl 2.5 microg/mL (group BF), or 40 mL bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2.5 microg/mL (group DBF). The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events were noted. The mean duration of sensory block and analgesia were longer in group BF (10.1 hours and 20.9 hours) than group B (6.9 hours and 11.6 hours) and DBF (5.9 hours and 12.0 hours) (P < .01, P < .001, respectively). The mean duration of motor block was also longer in group BF (10.7 hours) than group B (4.9 hours) (P < .01). Only 2 patients experienced motor block in group DBF. The frequency of successful block was 35% in group DBF (P < .01). Hemodynamic parameters were similar in all groups. In group B, only 1 patient experienced dizziness. Nausea was observed in 1 patient in each fentanyl group. The addition of 100 microg/mL fentanyl to 0.25% bupivacaine almost doubles the duration of analgesia following axillary brachial plexus block when compared with 0.25% bupivacaine alone.
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              No enhancement of sensory and motor blockade by ketamine added to ropivacaine interscalene brachial plexus blockade.

              Ketamine can enhance anesthetic and analgesic actions of a local anesthetic via a peripheral mechanism. The authors' goal was to determine whether or not ketamine added to ropivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus blockade prolongs postoperative analgesia. In addition, we wanted to determine the incidence of adverse-effects in patients undergoing hand surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Anesth Pain Med
                Anesth Pain Med
                10.5812/aapm
                Kowsar
                Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
                Kowsar
                2228-7523
                2228-7531
                01 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 9
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Email: rashidi.mahbobe@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.5812/aapm.92695
                7118445
                Copyright © 2019, Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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