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      Research on the Structure of Peanut Allergen Protein Ara h1 Based on Aquaphotomics

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          Peanut allergy is becoming a life-threatening disease that could induce severe allergic reactions in modern society, especially for children. The most promising method applied for deallergization is heating pretreatment. However, the mechanism from the view of spectroscopy has not been illustrated. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with aquaphotomics was introduced to help us understand the detailed structural changes information during the heating process. First, near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Ara h1 were acquired from 25 to 80°C. Then, aquaphotomics processing tools including principal component analysis (PCA), continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) were utilized for better understanding the thermodynamic changes, secondary structure, and the hydrogen bond network of Ara h1. The results indicated that about 55°C could be a key temperature, which was the structural change point. During the heating process, the hydrogen bond network was destroyed, free water was increased, and the content of protein secondary structure was changed. Moreover, it could reveal the interaction between the water structure and Ara h1 from the perspective of water molecules, and explain the effect of temperature on the Ara h1 structure and hydrogen-bonding system. Thus, this study described a new way to explore the thermodynamic properties of Ara h1 from the perspective of spectroscopy and laid a theoretical foundation for the application of temperature-desensitized protein products.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Spectral signatures of hydrated proton vibrations in water clusters.

          The ease with which the pH of water is measured obscures the fact that there is presently no clear molecular description for the hydrated proton. The mid-infrared spectrum of bulk aqueous acid, for example, is too diffuse to establish the roles of the putative Eigen (H3O+) and Zundel (H5O2+) ion cores. To expose the local environment of the excess charge, we report how the vibrational spectrum of protonated water clusters evolves in the size range from 2 to 11 water molecules. Signature bands indicating embedded Eigen or Zundel limiting forms are observed in all of the spectra with the exception of the three- and five-membered clusters. These unique species display bands appearing at intermediate energies, reflecting asymmetric solvation of the core ion. Taken together, the data reveal the pronounced spectral impact of subtle changes in the hydration environment.
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            Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

            Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions.
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              Structure and stability of 2S albumin-type peanut allergens: implications for the severity of peanut allergic reactions.

              Resistance to proteolytic enzymes and heat is thought to be a prerequisite property of food allergens. Allergens from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are the most frequent cause of fatal food allergic reactions. The allergenic 2S albumin Ara h 2 and the homologous minor allergen Ara h 6 were studied at the molecular level with regard to allergenic potency of native and protease-treated allergen. A high-resolution solution structure of the protease-resistant core of Ara h 6 was determined by NMR spectroscopy, and homology modelling was applied to generate an Ara h 2 structure. Ara h 2 appeared to be the more potent allergen, even though the two peanut allergens share substantial cross-reactivity. Both allergens contain cores that are highly resistant to proteolytic digestion and to temperatures of up to 100 degrees C. Even though IgE antibody-binding capacity was reduced by protease treatment, the mediator release from a functional equivalent of a mast cell or basophil, the humanized RBL (rat basophilic leukaemia) cell, demonstrated that this reduction in IgE antibody-binding capacity does not necessarily translate into reduced allergenic potency. Native Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 have virtually identical allergenic potency as compared with the allergens that were treated with digestive enzymes. The folds of the allergenic cores are virtually identical with each other and with the fold of the corresponding regions in the undigested proteins. The extreme immunological stability of the core structures of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 provides an explanation for the persistence of the allergenic potency even after food processing.

                Author and article information

                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                18 June 2021
                : 8
                1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University , Jinan, China
                2Research Institute Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia , Adelaide, SA, Australia
                3Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, Shandong University , Jinan, China
                4National Medical Products Administration Key Laboratory for Technology Research and Evaluation of Drug Products, Shandong University , Jinan, China
                5National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University , Jinan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Tao Pan, Jinan University, China

                Reviewed by: Jing Zhang, Dongguan University of Technology, China; Yiping Du, East China University of Science and Technology, China

                *Correspondence: Lian Li lilian@ 123456sdu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Nutrition and Food Science Technology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Copyright © 2021 Zhang, Liu, Yang, Sun, Xu, Li and Zang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, Equations: 5, References: 39, Pages: 9, Words: 5386
                Original Research


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