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      Issues of theory and method in the analysis of Paleolithic mortuary behavior: A view from Shanidar Cave

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          An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor

          Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe ~39,000–41,000 years ago but they have contributed one to three percent of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia 1 . Here, we analyze DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old 2 modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of six to nine percent of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe.
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            Breakage patterns of human long bones

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              Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals.

              Two sites of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Iberia, dated to as early as approximately 50,000 years ago, yielded perforated and pigment-stained marine shells. At Cueva de los Aviones, three umbo-perforated valves of Acanthocardia and Glycymeris were found alongside lumps of yellow and red colorants, and residues preserved inside a Spondylus shell consist of a red lepidocrocite base mixed with ground, dark red-to-black fragments of hematite and pyrite. A perforated Pecten shell, painted on its external, white side with an orange mix of goethite and hematite, was abandoned after breakage at Cueva Antón, 60 km inland. Comparable early modern human-associated material from Africa and the Near East is widely accepted as evidence for body ornamentation, implying behavioral modernity. The Iberian finds show that European Neandertals were no different from coeval Africans in this regard, countering genetic/cognitive explanations for the emergence of symbolism and strengthening demographic/social ones.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews
                Evolutionary Anthropology
                Wiley
                1060-1538
                1520-6505
                July 11 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                [2 ]School of Biological and Environmental SciencesLiverpool John Moores University Liverpool UK
                [3 ]Department of History, Classics and Archaeology BirkbeckUniversity of London London UK
                [4 ]Directorate of Antiquities (Soran Province) Soran, Kurdistan Iraq
                [5 ]Department of Archaeology, Classics and EgyptologyUniversity of Liverpool Liverpool UK
                [6 ]Canterbury Archaeological Trust Canterbury UK
                [7 ]Département d'AnthropologieUniversité de Montréal Montreal, Quebec Canada
                [8 ]McDonald Institute for Archaeological ResearchUniversity of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                [9 ]Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary StudiesDepartment of Archaeology, University of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                [10 ]Institute of Earth SciencesThe Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem Israel
                [11 ]Centre for Archaeological ScienceUniversity of Wollongong Wollongong New South Wales Australia
                [12 ]Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and PaleoenvironmentUniversity of Tübingen Tübingen Germany
                [13 ]School of Natural and Built EnvironmentQueen's University Belfast Belfast UK
                [14 ]Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change Tempe Arizona USA
                [15 ]CNRS, UMR5199 PACEAUniversité de Bordeaux, Ministry of Culture Pessac Cedex France
                [16 ]The Cyprus Institute Nicosia Cyprus
                [17 ]International Association for Mediterranean and Oriental Studies (ISMEO) Rome Italy
                [18 ]SFF Centre for Early Sapiens Behaviour (SapienCE)University of Bergen Bergen Norway
                [19 ]General Directorate of Antiquities in KurdistanKurdish Regional Government Erbil Iraq
                [20 ]Department of ArchaeologyDurham University Durham UK
                [21 ]Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre Evolución Humana (CENIEH)Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca Burgos Spain
                [22 ]Department of ArchaeologySimon Fraser University Burnaby British Columbia Canada
                [23 ]CHER, Department of Earth SciencesNatural History Museum London UK
                Article
                10.1002/evan.21854
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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