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      Molecular Genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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          Abstract

          Results of behavioral genetic and molecular genetic studies have converged to suggest that both genetic and nongenetic factors contribute to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review this literature, with a particular emphasis on molecular genetic studies. Family, twin, and adoption studies provide compelling evidence that genes play a strong role in mediating susceptibility to ADHD. This fact is most clearly seen in the 20 extant twin studies, which estimate the heritability of ADHD to be .76. Molecular genetic studies suggest that the genetic architecture of ADHD is complex. The few genome-wide scans conducted thus far are not conclusive. In contrast, the many candidate gene studies of ADHD have produced substantial evidence implicating several genes in the etiology of the disorder. For the eight genes for which the same variant has been studied in three or more case-control or family-based studies, seven show statistically significant evidence of association with ADHD on the basis of the pooled odds ratio across studies: DRD4, DRD5, DAT, DBH, 5-HTT, HTR1B, and SNAP-25.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Biological Psychiatry
          Biological Psychiatry
          Elsevier BV
          00063223
          June 2005
          June 2005
          : 57
          : 11
          : 1313-1323
          Article
          10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.024
          15950004
          b4c7604d-24c3-4c0a-a3e8-9196852e72f3
          © 2005

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/


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