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      The systematics of Mantodea revisited: an updated classification incorporating multiple data sources (Insecta: Dictyoptera)

      1 , 2

      Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.)

      Informa UK Limited

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          Phylogenetic Systematics

           Willi Hennig (1965)
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            Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence

            Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera—and stem-mantises—would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.
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              Reconstructing the origins of praying mantises (Dictyoptera, Mantodea): the roles of Gondwanan vicariance and morphological convergence

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.)
                Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.)
                Informa UK Limited
                0037-9271
                2168-6351
                March 27 2019
                March 04 2019
                March 27 2019
                March 04 2019
                : 55
                : 2
                : 101-196
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Conservation Biology Unit, Ruhr University Bochum, ND 1/31, Universitätsstraße 150, D – 44780 Bochum, Germany
                [2 ] Entomologie, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, C. P. 50, 57 rue Cuvier, F – 75231 Paris cedex 05, France
                Article
                10.1080/00379271.2018.1556567
                © 2019

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