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      Mechanisms of formin-mediated actin assembly and dynamics

      Biophysical Reviews
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="Par1">Cellular viability requires tight regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Distinct families of nucleation-promoting factors enable the rapid assembly of filament nuclei that elongate and are incorporated into diverse and specialized actin-based structures. In addition to promoting filament nucleation, the formin family of proteins directs the elongation of unbranched actin filaments. Processive association of formins with growing filament ends is achieved through continuous barbed end binding of the highly conserved, dimeric formin homology (FH) 2 domain. In cooperation with the FH1 domain and C-terminal tail region, FH2 dimers mediate actin subunit addition at speeds that can dramatically exceed the rate of spontaneous assembly. Here, I review recent biophysical, structural, and computational studies that have provided insight into the mechanisms of formin-mediated actin assembly and dynamics. </p>

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          Most cited references131

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          Mechanism and function of formins in the control of actin assembly.

          Formins are a widely expressed family of proteins that govern cell shape, adhesion, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis by remodeling the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. These large multidomain proteins associate with a variety of other cellular factors and directly nucleate actin polymerization through a novel mechanism. The signature formin homology 2 (FH2) domain initiates filament assembly and remains persistently associated with the fast-growing barbed end, enabling rapid insertion of actin subunits while protecting the end from capping proteins. On the basis of structural and mechanistic work, an integrated model is presented for FH2 processive motion. The adjacent FH1 domain recruits profilin-actin complexes and accelerates filament elongation. The most predominantly expressed formins in animals and fungi are autoinhibited through intramolecular interactions and appear to be activated by Rho GTPases and additional factors. Other classes of formins lack the autoinhibitory and/or Rho-binding domains and thus are likely to be controlled by alternative mechanisms.
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            The nature of the globular- to fibrous-actin transition.

            Actin plays crucial parts in cell motility through a dynamic process driven by polymerization and depolymerization, that is, the globular (G) to fibrous (F) actin transition. Although our knowledge about the actin-based cellular functions and the molecules that regulate the G- to F-actin transition is growing, the structural aspects of the transition remain enigmatic. We created a model of F-actin using X-ray fibre diffraction intensities obtained from well oriented sols of rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin to 3.3 A in the radial direction and 5.6 A along the equator. Here we show that the G- to F-actin conformational transition is a simple relative rotation of the two major domains by about 20 degrees. As a result of the domain rotation, the actin molecule in the filament is flat. The flat form is essential for the formation of stable, helical F-actin. Our F-actin structure model provides the basis for understanding actin polymerization as well as its molecular interactions with actin-binding proteins.
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              Unleashing formins to remodel the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons.

              Formins are highly conserved proteins that have essential roles in remodelling the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to influence eukaryotic cell shape and behaviour. Recent work has identified numerous cellular factors that locally recruit, activate or inactivate formins to bridle and unleash their potent effects on actin nucleation and elongation. The effects of formins on microtubules have also begun to be described, which places formins in a prime position to coordinate actin and microtubule dynamics. The emerging complexity in the mechanisms governing formins mirrors the wide range of essential functions that they perform in cell motility, cell division and cell and tissue morphogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biophysical Reviews
                Biophys Rev
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1867-2450
                1867-2469
                December 2018
                November 3 2018
                December 2018
                : 10
                : 6
                : 1553-1569
                Article
                10.1007/s12551-018-0468-6
                6297096
                30392063
                b5d249c0-3f65-4346-8341-5d57881f761c
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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