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      Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries


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          This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth.

          Materials and Methods:

          The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level.


          There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group.


          Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

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          Most cited references24

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          Salivary biomarkers of existing periodontal disease: a cross-sectional study.

          The authors conducted a study to determine if salivary biomarkers specific for three aspects of periodontitis--inflammation, collagen degradation and bone turnover--correlate with clinica features of periodontal disease. The relationship between periodontal disease and the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in whole saliva of 57 adults (28 "case" subjects with moderate-to-severe periodontal disease and 29 healthy control subjects) was examined in a case-control trial. Mean levels of IL-1beta and MMP-8 in saliva were significantly higher in case subjects than in controls. Both analytes correlated with periodontal indexes, whereas, after adjustment for confounders, OPG did not. Elevated salivary levels of MMP-8 or IL-1beta (more than two standard deviations above the mean of the controls) significantly increased the risk of periodontal disease (odds ratios in the 11.3-15.4 range). Combined elevated salivary levels of MMP-8 and IL-1beta increased the risk of experiencing periodontal disease 45-fold, and elevations in all three biomarkers correlated with individual clinical parameters indicative of periodontal disease. Salivary levels of MMP-8 and IL-1beta appear to serve as biomarkers of periodontitis. Qualitative changes in the composition of salivary biomarkers could have significance in the diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease.
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            Effect of controlled oral hygiene procedures on caries and periodontal disease in adults.

              • Record: found
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              Inflammatory response following acute magnesium deficiency in the rat.

              The importance of inflammatory processes in the pathology of Mg deficiency has been recently reconsidered but the sequence of events leading to the inflammatory response remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to characterize more precisely the acute phase response following Mg deficiency in the rat. Weaning male Wistar rats were pair-fed either a Mg-deficient or a control diet for either 4 or 8 days. The characteristic allergy-like crisis of Mg-deficient rats was accompanied by a blood leukocyte response and changes in leukocytes subpopulations. A significant increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma level was observed in Mg-deficient rats compared to rats fed a control diet. The inflammatory process was accompanied by an increase in plasma levels of acute phase proteins. The concentrations of alpha2-macroglobulin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein in the plasma of Mg-deficient rats were higher than in control rats. This was accompanied in the liver by an increase in the level of mRNA coding for these proteins. Moreover, Mg-deficient rats showed a significant increase in plasma fibrinogen and a significant decrease in albumin concentrations. Macrophages found in greater number in the peritoneal cavity of Mg-deficient rats were activated endogenously and appeared to be primed for superoxide production following phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. A high plasma level of IL-6 could be detected as early as day 4 for the Mg-deficient diet. Substance P does not appear to be the initiator of inflammation since IL-6 increase was observed without plasma elevation of this neuropeptide. The fact that the inflammatory response was an early consequence of Mg deficiency suggests that reduced extracellular Mg might be responsible for the activated state of immune cells.

                Author and article information

                Contemp Clin Dent
                Contemp Clin Dent
                Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Oct-Dec 2015
                : 6
                : 4
                : 461-465
                [1] Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College and Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr. Zareena, Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College and Hospital, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka, India. E-mail: dr.zarin@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © Contemporary Clinical Dentistry

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article

                flow rate,magnesium,ph,phosphate,salivary calcium
                flow rate, magnesium, ph, phosphate, salivary calcium


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