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      Subterranean Acoustic Activity Patterns of Vitacea polistiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Relation to Abiotic and Biotic Factors

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          Abstract

          Grape root borer (GRB), Vitacea polistiformis, is a root-feeding pest of grapevines in the US southeast that causes underground damage well before vines show visible symptoms. A 269-d study was conducted at 31 sites in a Florida vineyard to record short bursts of insect movement and feeding vibrations in grapevine root systems and provide information that can improve timing and targeting of GRB management efforts. Characteristic spectral and temporal patterns in the subterranean vibrations facilitated discrimination of GRB from background noise and non-targeted arthropods. Infestation likelihood of GRB at each site was estimated from previous studies relating infestation to burst rate. In all, 39% of recordings indicated low infestation likelihood. Sites with medium or high infestation likelihood were confined to a small region of the vineyard where a vine with larval feeding damage was confirmed. The restricted area suggests that the biological control or chemical treatments could be reduced elsewhere. Acoustic activity was significantly greater in fall and winter than in spring, and greater in evening than afternoon; fall evenings seemed best for GRB acoustic surveys. The GRB seasonal and circadian acoustic variation reflected phenological variation in grape root growth and nutrients and was not significantly correlated with temperature.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Plants as transmission channels for insect vibrational songs

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            Foraging Strategies of Insects

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              Modulation of environmental responses of plants by circadian clocks.

              Circadian clocks are signalling networks that enhance an organism's relationship with the rhythmic environment. The plant circadian clock modulates a wide range of physiological and biochemical events, such as stomatal and organ movements, photosynthesis and induction of flowering. Environmental signals regulate the phase and period of the plant circadian clock, which results in an approximate synchronization of clock outputs with external events. One of the consequences of circadian control is that stimuli of the same strength applied at different times of the day can result in responses of different intensities. This is known as 'gating'. Gating of a signal may allow plants to better process and react to the wide range and intensities of environmental signals to which they are constantly subjected. Light signalling, stomatal movements and low-temperature responses are examples of signalling pathways that are gated by the circadian clock. In this review, we describe the many levels at which the circadian clock interacts with responses to the environment. We discuss how environmental rhythms of temperature and light intensity entrain the circadian clock, how photoperiodism may be regulated by the relationship between environmental rhythms and the phasing of clock outputs, and how gating modulates the sensitivity of the clock and other responses to environmental and physiological signals. Finally, we describe evidence that the circadian clock can increase plant fitness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                23 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 10
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Biological Control, Florida A&M University (FAMU), Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
                [2 ]Center for Viticulture, FAMU, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
                [3 ]Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
                [4 ]Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
                [5 ]US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: richard.mankin@ 123456ars.usda.gov ; Tel.: +1-352-374-5774
                Article
                insects-10-00267
                10.3390/insects10090267
                6780318
                31443578
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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                grape root borer, vineyard, florida

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