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      Relationship between cardiovascular health metrics and physical performance in community-living people: Results from the Longevity check-up (Lookup) 7+ project

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular health metrics (CHMs) may predict disability independent of vascular events. Though, the link between CHMs and physical performance is unclear. This relationship was explored using data from the Longevity check-up (Lookup) 7+ project. Lookup 7+ is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings across Italy. People who are at least 18-year-old and provide written informed consent are eligible. CHMs [i.e., smoking status, healthy diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and diabetes status] are assessed through closed questions and objective measurements. Physical performance is measured via the 5-repetition chair-stand test. Analyses included 7446 participants (55.5 ± 14.9 years; 56% women). Physical performance positively correlated with CHMs scores, such that participants who scored higher (6–7 points) completed the chair-stand test about 2 s faster than those scoring lower (1–2 points). In fully adjusted analysis, better physical performance was more frequently observed in younger, non-smoking, physically active men, with ideal BMI, and no diabetes. Our findings indicate a gradient of better physical function with increasing CHMs scores. Future investigations should establish the longitudinal effect of unhealthy behaviours and cardiovascular risk factors on physical performance and verify whether implementation of large-scale primordial cardiovascular prevention may positively impact physical fitness.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability.

          Functional assessment is an important part of the evaluation of elderly persons. We conducted this study to determine whether objective measures of physical function can predict subsequent disability in older persons. This prospective cohort study included men and women 71 years of age or older who were living in the community, who reported no disability in the activities of daily living, and who reported that they were able to walk one-half mile (0.8 km) and climb stairs without assistance. The subjects completed a short battery of physical-performance tests and participated in a follow-up interview four years later. The tests included an assessment of standing balance, a timed 8-ft (2.4-m) walk at a normal pace, and a timed test of five repetitions of rising from a chair and sitting down. Among the 1122 subjects who were not disabled at base line and who participated in the four-year follow-up, lower scores on the base-line performance tests were associated with a statistically significant, graduated increase in the frequency of disability in the activities of daily living and mobility-related disability at follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of chronic disease, those with the lowest scores on the performance tests were 4.2 to 4.9 times as likely to have disability at four years as those with the highest performance scores, and those with intermediate performance scores were 1.6 to 1.8 times as likely to have disability. Among nondisabled older persons living in the community, objective measures of lower-extremity function were highly predictive of subsequent disability. Measures of physical performance may identify older persons with a preclinical stage of disability who may benefit from interventions to prevent the development of frank disability.
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            2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

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              Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people.

              Sit-to-stand (STS) performance is often used as a measure of lower-limb strength in older people and those with significant weakness. However, the findings of recent studies suggest that performance in this test is also influenced by factors associated with balance and mobility. We conducted a study to determine whether sensorimotor, balance, and psychological factors in addition to lower-limb strength predict sit-to-stand performance in older people. Six hundred and sixty nine community-dwelling men and women aged 75-93 years (mean age 78.9, SD = 4.1) underwent quantitative tests of strength, vision, peripheral sensation, reaction time, balance, health status, and sit-to-stand performance. Many physiological and psychological factors were significantly associated with sit-to-stand times in univariate analyses. Multiple regression analysis revealed that visual contrast sensitivity, lower limb proprioception, peripheral tactile sensitivity, reaction time involving a foot-press response, sway with eyes open on a foam rubber mat, body weight, and scores on the Short-Form 12 Health Status Questionnaire pain, anxiety, and vitality scales in addition to knee extension, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion strength were significant and independent predictors of STS performance. Of these measures, quadriceps strength had the highest beta weight, indicating it was the most important variable in explaining the variance in STS times. However, the remaining measures accounted for more than half the explained variance in STS times. The final regression model explained 34.9% of the variance in STS times (multiple R =.59). The findings indicate that, in community-dwelling older people, STS performance is influenced by multiple physiological and psychological processes and represents a particular transfer skill, rather than a proxy measure of lower limb strength.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anna.picca1@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                5 November 2018
                5 November 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 0941 3192, GRID grid.8142.f, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, , Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, ; Rome, 00168 Italy
                Article
                34746
                10.1038/s41598-018-34746-4
                6218517
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (D3.2 2013) - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (D3.2 2015)
                Funded by: Centro Studi Achille e Linda Lorenzon” (N/A)
                Funded by: - Fondazione Roma (NCD Call for Proposals 2013) - Centro Studi "Achille e Linda Lorenzon" (N/A)
                Funded by: - Italia Longeva (N/A) - Marche Region (N/A) - Ferrarini, Tedaldi, Fileni, Elanco (N/A) - Danone Italia (N/A) - Merck Sharp & Dohme Italia (N/A)
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