SARS-CoV-2 has been widely spread around the world and COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Limited clinically effective antiviral drugs are available now. The development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs has become an urgent work worldwide. At present, potential therapeutic targets and drugs for SARS-CoV-2 are continuously reported, and many repositioning drugs are undergoing extensive clinical research, including remdesivir and chloroquine. On the other hand, structures of many important viral target proteins and host target proteins, including that of RdRp and Mpro were constantly reported, which greatly promoted structure-based drug design. This paper summarizes the current research progress and challenges in the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, and proposes novel short-term and long-term drug research strategies.