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      Corona-Nidaan: lightweight deep convolutional neural network for chest X-Ray based COVID-19 infection detection

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          Abstract

          The coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic is today’s major public health crisis, we have faced since the Second World War. The pandemic is spreading around the globe like a wave, and according to the World Health Organization’s recent report, the number of confirmed cases and deaths are rising rapidly. COVID-19 pandemic has created severe social, economic, and political crises, which in turn will leave long-lasting scars. One of the countermeasures against controlling coronavirus outbreak is specific, accurate, reliable, and rapid detection technique to identify infected patients. The availability and affordability of RT-PCR kits remains a major bottleneck in many countries, while handling COVID-19 outbreak effectively. Recent findings indicate that chest radiography anomalies can characterize patients with COVID-19 infection. In this study, Corona-Nidaan, a lightweight deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), is proposed to detect COVID-19, Pneumonia, and Normal cases from chest X-ray image analysis; without any human intervention. We introduce a simple minority class oversampling method for dealing with imbalanced dataset problem. The impact of transfer learning with pre-trained CNNs on chest X-ray based COVID-19 infection detection is also investigated. Experimental analysis shows that Corona-Nidaan model outperforms prior works and other pre-trained CNN based models. The model achieved 95% accuracy for three-class classification with 94% precision and recall for COVID-19 cases. While studying the performance of various pre-trained models, it is also found that VGG19 outperforms other pre-trained CNN models by achieving 93% accuracy with 87% recall and 93% precision for COVID-19 infection detection. The model is evaluated by screening the COVID-19 infected Indian Patient chest X-ray dataset with good accuracy.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Is Open Access

            A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China

             Fan Wu,  Su Zhao,  Bin Yu (2020)
            Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health 1–3 . Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing 4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China 5 . This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans.
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              Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Fundus Photographs.

              Deep learning is a family of computational methods that allow an algorithm to program itself by learning from a large set of examples that demonstrate the desired behavior, removing the need to specify rules explicitly. Application of these methods to medical imaging requires further assessment and validation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mainak.mail@gmail.com
                sunitadhavale@gmail.com
                jitendra.ingole@gmail.com
                Journal
                Appl Intell
                Applied Intelligence
                Springer US (New York )
                0924-669X
                1573-7497
                2 February 2021
                : 1-18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.444680.a, ISNI 0000 0004 1755 9054, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), ; Girinagar Pune, 411025 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.459956.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1804 2495, Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, ; Narhe Pune, 411041 India
                Article
                1978
                10.1007/s10489-020-01978-9
                7851642
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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