45
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Urinary human polyomavirus and papillomavirus infection and bladder cancer risk

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background:

          The association of transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder (TCB) with Schistosoma haematobium suggested a possible role of infections in the aetiology of TCB.

          Methods:

          In all, 114 TCB cases and 140 hospital controls from Pordenone Province were enrolled within an Italian multi-centric case–control study. Urine samples were screened for DNA from five human polyomaviruses (HPyV) (JCV, BKV, MCV, WUV, and KIV); SV40; and 22 mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV) using highly sensitive PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for risk of TCB by HPyV- or HPV-positivity using unconditional logistic regression.

          Results:

          Human polyomavirus prevalence was similar in TCB cases (71.7%) and controls (77.7%) (OR for TCB=0.85; 95% CI: 0.45–1.61). JCV was the most frequently detected HPyV type. No individual HPyV showed a significant association. Among cases, HPyV-positivity was not associated with tumour characteristics, but it was significantly lower in women than men and among current and former smokers than never smokers. Human papillomavirus was detected in seven cases and five controls (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 0.42–5.45).

          Conclusion:

          The present small study does not support an involvement of HPyV or HPV infection in TCB aetiology in immunocompetent individuals. Differences in HPyV-positivity by sex and smoking may derive from differences in either acquisition or persistence of the infection.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 18

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cancer incidence before and after kidney transplantation.

          Immune suppression after organ transplantation is associated with a markedly increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and a few virus-associated cancers. Although it is generally accepted that other cancers do not occur at increased rates, there have been few long-term population-based cohort studies performed. To compare the incidence of cancer in patients receiving immune suppression after kidney transplantation with incidence in the same population in 2 periods before receipt of immune suppression: during dialysis and during end-stage kidney disease before renal replacement therapy (RRT). A population-based cohort study of 28,855 patients with end-stage kidney disease who received RRT, with 273,407 person-years of follow-up. Incident cancers (1982-2003) were ascertained by record linkage between the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry and the Australian National Cancer Statistics Clearing House. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer, using age-specific, sex-specific, calendar year-specific, and state/territory-specific population cancer incidence rates. The overall incidence of cancer, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer and those cancers known to frequently cause end-stage kidney disease, was markedly increased after transplantation (n = 1236; SIR, 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.09-3.46). In contrast, cancer incidence was only slightly increased during dialysis (n = 870; SIR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.27-1.45) and before RRT (n = 689; SIR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.25). After transplantation, cancer occurred at significantly increased incidence at 25 sites, and risk exceeded 3-fold at 18 of these sites. Most of these cancers were of known or suspected viral etiology. Kidney transplantation is associated with a marked increase in cancer risk at a wide variety of sites. Because SIRs for most types of cancer were not increased before transplantation, immune suppression may be responsible for the increased risk. These data suggest a broader than previously appreciated role of the interaction between the immune system and common viral infections in the etiology of cancer.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Prevalence of HPV infection among men: A systematic review of the literature.

            Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infection; an estimated 6.2 million persons are newly infected every year in the United States. There are limited data on HPV infection in heterosexual men. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching MEDLINE using the terms "human papillomavirus," "HPV," "male," "seroprevalence," and "serology" to retrieve articles published from 1 January 1990 to 1 February 2006. We included studies that had data on population characteristics and that evaluated male genital anatomic sites or specimens for HPV DNA or included assessments of seropositivity to HPV type 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men. We excluded studies that had been conducted only in children or immunocompromised persons (HIV infected, transplant recipients, or elderly). We included a total of 40 publications on HPV DNA detection and risk factors for HPV in men; 27 evaluated multiple anatomic sites or specimens, 10 evaluated a single site or specimen, and 3 evaluated risk factors or optimal anatomic sites/specimens for HPV detection. Twelve studies assessed site- or specimen-specific HPV DNA detection. HPV prevalence in men was 1.3%-72.9% in studies in which multiple anatomic sites or specimens were evaluated; 15 (56%) of these studies reported > or =20% HPV prevalence. HPV prevalence varied on the basis of sampling, processing methods, and the anatomic site(s) or specimen(s) sampled. We included 15 publications reporting HPV seroprevalence. Rates of seropositivity depended on the population, HPV type, and methods used. In 9 studies that evaluated both men and women, all but 1 demonstrated that HPV seroprevalence was lower in men than in women. HPV infection is highly prevalent in sexually active men and can be detected by use of a variety of specimens and methods. There have been few natural-history studies and no transmission studies of HPV in men. The information that we have reviewed may be useful for future natural-history studies and for modeling the potential impact of a prophylactic HPV vaccine.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Discovery and epidemiology of the human polyomaviruses BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV).

               M. M. Knowles (2005)
              Although discovered over thirty years ago, many aspects of the epidemiology of BKV and JCV in the general population, such as the source of infectious virus and the mode of transmission, are still unknown. Primary infection with both BKV and JCV is usually asymptomatic, and so age seroprevalence studies have been used to indicate infection. BKV commonly infects young children in all parts of the world, with the exception of a few very isolated communities, adult seroprevalence rates of 65-90% being reached by the age of ten years. In contrast, the pattern of JCV infection appears to vary between populations; in some anti-JCV antibody is acquired early as for BKV, but in others anti-JCV antibody prevalence continues to rise throughout life. This indicates that the two viruses are probably transmitted independently and by different routes. Whilst BKV DNA is found infrequently in the urine of healthy adults, JCV viruria occurs universally, increasing with age, with adult prevalence rates often between 20% and 60%. Four antigenic subtypes have been described for BKV and eight genotypes are currently recognized for JCV. The latter have been used to trace population movements and to reconstruct the population history in various communities.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                0007-0920
                1532-1827
                03 January 2012
                24 November 2011
                : 106
                : 1
                : 222-226
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, IRCCS Centro di Riferimento Oncologico , 33081 Aviano (PN), Italy
                [2 ]International Agency for Research on Cancer , 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
                [3 ]Unit of Urology, Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Maria degli Angeli , 33170 Pordenone (PN), Italy
                [4 ]Department of Epidemiology, The Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research , 20156 Milan, Italy
                [5 ]Department of Occupational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano , 20133 Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                Article
                bjc2011519
                10.1038/bjc.2011.519
                3251864
                22116302
                Copyright © 2012 Cancer Research UK
                Categories
                Epidemiology

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                human polyomavirus, bladder cancer, human papillomavirus

                Comments

                Comment on this article