Objective To understand the physical health of primary and secondary school students in Shijiazhuang City, and provide data basis for exploring preventive measures.
Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the nutritional status of children and adolescents among students from 24 primary and secondary schools in 6 districts, 3 counties and 2 county-level cities of Shijiazhuang City during 2014-2017.
Results From 2014 to 2017, the total 102 820 students that were effective medical examination number in primary and middle schools in Shijiazhuang City were enrolled into this study. There were 51 370 male students and 51 450 female students. The height of male students was (161.66±16.90) cm, the weight was (55.81±18.73) kg; the height of female students was (156.00±13.03) cm, and the weight was (49.72±13.87) kg. The total detection rate of malnutrition among primary and middle school students in Shijiazhuang City was 5.85%, the total overweight rate was 16.24%, and the total obesity rate was 12.55% during 2014-2017. The detection rate of malnutrition in boys (7.06%) was significantly higher than that in girls (4.66%)( P<0.001). The detection rate of overweight and obesity among boys was also significantly higher than that of girls ( P<0.001). The overweight and obesity of primary and middle school students in Shijiazhuang City increased from 2014 to 2017 ( P<0.05). Among the three sections from primary school to high school, primary school students had the worst nutritional status, and the detection rates of malnutrition, overweight and obesity were the highest (all P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the detection rate of malnutrition between different segments ( P<0.001). The detection rates of severe wasting, mild wasting and growth retardation were consistent with the detection rate of malnutrition (all P<0.001). After the trend test of χ 2, the rates of overweight and obesity showed a decreasing trend with grades (all P<0.001).
Conclusion The situation of malnutrition and overweight and obesity prevention and control in primary and middle school students in Shijiazhuang City is still grim. The prevention and control of the nutritional status of boys and primary school students should be emphasized.
摘要： 目的 了解石家庄市中小学生身体健康状况, 为探讨预防中小学生营养不良和超重肥胖对策提供依据。 方法 以2014—2017 年石家庄市6 区3 县2 县级市24 所中小学的在校学生为研究对象进行横断面调查。 结果 2014—2017年石家庄市中小学有效体检学生人数共计 102 820 人, 其中男生 51 370 人, 女生 51 450 人, 男生身高 为 (161.66±16.90) cm, 体重为 (55.81±18.73) kg, 女生身高为 (156.00±13.03) cm, 体重为 (49.72±13.87) kg。四年学生总 体营养不良检出率为 5.85%, 超重率为 16.24%, 肥胖率为 12.55% 。男生营养不良检出率 (7.06%) 高于女生 (4.66%), 男 生超重、肥胖检出率也均高于女生 ( P<0.001), 两组间差异均有统计学意义 ( P<0.001) 。2014—2017 年石家庄市中小学 生超重率和肥胖率均有逐年升高的趋势 ( P<0.05) 。从小学到高中这三个学段中, 小学生营养状况最差, 其营养不良、超 重和肥胖检出率均最高 ( P<0.05) 。不同学段学生营养不良检出率间差异有统计学意义 ( P<0.001), 其中重度消瘦、轻度 消瘦和生长迟缓检出率均与营养不良检出率保持一致 (均有 P<0.001) 。经 χ 2趋势性检验, 超重和肥胖率均有随年级增 长呈下降的趋势 ( P<0.001) 。 结论 石家庄市中小学学生营养不良和超重肥胖防控形势依然严峻, 应加强男生和小学 生营养状况的防控力度。