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      Adaptation and validation of Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale in Chinese population

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Compulsive buying (CB) is a behavioral addiction that is conceptualized as an obsessive–compulsive and impulsive–control disorder. The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS), a six-item self-reporting instrument that has been validated worldwide, was developed based on this theoretical background. This study aimed to adapt RCBS to the Chinese population (RCBS-TC) to guide future national and international prevalence studies.

          Methods

          This methodological study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved the forward and backward translation of RCBS, the content and face validation of the RCBS, and the evaluation of its translation adequacy. Phase 2 involved the psychometric testing of RCBS-TC for its internal consistency, stability, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

          Results

          In Phase 1, RCBS-TC obtained satisfactory item-level (I-CVI = 83.3%–100%) and scale-level content validity index (CVI/AVE = 97.2%), comprehensibility (100%), and translation adequacy [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.858]. In Phase 2, based on data collected from 821 adults, RCBS-TC demonstrated a satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .88; corrected item-total correlation coefficients = 0.61–0.78) 2-week test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.82 based on 61 university students). For construct validation, the CFA results indicated that the corrected first-order two-factor models were acceptable with the same goodness-of-fit indices (χ 2/ df = 8.56, CFI = 0.99, NFI = 0.98, IFI = 0.99, and RMSEA = 0.09). The 2-week test–retest reliability of RCBS-TC ( n = 61) was also satisfactory (ICC = 0.82).

          Discussion and conclusions

          This methodological study adopted appropriate and stringent procedures to ensure that the translation and validation of RCBS-TC was of quality. The results indicate that this scale has a satisfactory reliability and validity for the Chinese population.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Web-based questionnaires: the future in epidemiology?

          The traditional epidemiologic modes of data collection, including paper-and-pencil questionnaires and interviews, have several limitations, such as decreasing response rates over the last decades and high costs in large study populations. The use of Web-based questionnaires may be an attractive alternative but is still scarce in epidemiologic research because of major concerns about selective nonresponse and reliability of the data obtained. The authors discuss advantages and disadvantages of Web-based questionnaires and current developments in this area. In addition, they focus on some practical issues and safety concerns involved in the application of Web-based questionnaires in epidemiologic research. They conclude that many problems related to the use of Web-based questionnaires have been solved or will most likely be solved in the near future and that this mode of data collection offers serious benefits. However, questionnaire design issues may have a major impact on response and completion rates and on reliability of the data. Theoretically, Web-based questionnaires could be considered an alternative or complementary mode in the range of epidemiologic methods of data collection. Practice and comparisons with the traditional survey techniques should reveal whether they can fulfill their expectations.
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            Drug Addiction: Updating Actions to Habits to Compulsions Ten Years On.

            A decade ago, we hypothesized that drug addiction can be viewed as a transition from voluntary, recreational drug use to compulsive drug-seeking habits, neurally underpinned by a transition from prefrontal cortical to striatal control over drug seeking and taking as well as a progression from the ventral to the dorsal striatum. Here, in the light of burgeoning, supportive evidence, we reconsider and elaborate this hypothesis, in particular the refinements in our understanding of ventral and dorsal striatal mechanisms underlying goal-directed and habitual drug seeking, the influence of drug-associated Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli on drug seeking and relapse, and evidence for impairments in top-down prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over this behavior. We further review animal and human studies that have begun to define etiological factors and individual differences in the propensity to become addicted to drugs, leading to the description of addiction endophenotypes, especially for cocaine addiction. We consider the prospect of novel treatments for addiction that promote abstinence from and relapse to drug use.
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              An Expanded Conceptualization and a New Measure of Compulsive Buying

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                28 September 2018
                September 2018
                : 7
                : 3
                : 760-769
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR
                [ 2 ]School of Nursing and Health Studies, The Open University of Hong Kong , Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR
                [ 3 ]Department of Applied Psychology, Lingnan University , New Territories, Hong Kong SAR
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Simon Ching Lam, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor; GH523, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR; Phone: +852 2766 5620; Fax: +852 2364 9663; E-mails: simlc@ 123456alumni.cuhk.net ; simon.c.lam@ 123456polyu.edu.hk
                Article
                10.1556/2006.7.2018.94
                6426376
                30264602
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funding sources: This work was partially supported by the School of Science and Technology Unit Fund, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (grant number: ST-17/18-1), and S. Living Campaign 2017, Wofoo Community Service Network, Wofoo Social Enterprises, Hong Kong.
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