When HIV was initially discovered as the causative agent of AIDS, many expected to find a vaccine within a few years. This has however proven to be elusive; it has been approximately 30 years since HIV was first discovered, and a suitable vaccine is still not in effect. In 2009, a paper published by Hutter et al. reported on a bone marrow transplant performed on an HIV positive individual using stem cells that were derived from a donor who was homozygous for a mutation in the CCR5 gene known as CCR5 delta-32 (Δ32) ( Hütter et al., 2009). The HIV positive individual became HIV negative and remained free of viral detection after transplantation despite having halted anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment. This review will focus on CCR5 as a key component in HIV immunity and will discuss the role of CCR5 in the control of HIV infection.