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      TiO2/CuInS2-sensitized structure for sensitive photoelectrochemical immunoassay of cortisol in saliva

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          Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in stress research.

          Salivary cortisol is frequently used as a biomarker of psychological stress. However, psychobiological mechanisms, which trigger the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) can only indirectly be assessed by salivary cortisol measures. The different instances that control HPAA reactivity (hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenals) and their respective modulators, receptors, or binding proteins, may all affect salivary cortisol measures. Thus, a linear relationship with measures of plasma ACTH and cortisol in blood or urine does not necessarily exist. This is particularly true under response conditions. The present paper addresses several psychological and biological variables, which may account for such dissociations, and aims to help researchers to rate the validity and psychobiological significance of salivary cortisol as an HPAA biomarker of stress in their experiments.
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            Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease.

            In response to stress, the brain activates several neuropeptide-secreting systems. This eventually leads to the release of adrenal corticosteroid hormones, which subsequently feed back on the brain and bind to two types of nuclear receptor that act as transcriptional regulators. By targeting many genes, corticosteroids function in a binary fashion, and serve as a master switch in the control of neuronal and network responses that underlie behavioural adaptation. In genetically predisposed individuals, an imbalance in this binary control mechanism can introduce a bias towards stress-related brain disease after adverse experiences. New candidate susceptibility genes that serve as markers for the prediction of vulnerable phenotypes are now being identified.
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              Recent Advances in Photoelectrochemical Sensing: From Engineered Photoactive Materials to Sensing Devices and Detection Modes

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry
                J Solid State Electrochem
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1432-8488
                1433-0768
                March 2022
                January 23 2022
                March 2022
                : 26
                : 3
                : 749-759
                Article
                10.1007/s10008-021-05101-x
                bd95b6e7-b4bc-48ec-b32c-56f62070d172
                © 2022

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm


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