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      Improved performance and stability of perovskite solar cells by crystal crosslinking with alkylphosphonic acid ω-ammonium chlorides.

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          Abstract

          In the past few years, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as promising materials for photovoltaic applications, but simultaneously achieving high performance and long-term stability has proved challenging. Here, we show a one-step solution-processing strategy using phosphonic acid ammonium additives that results in efficient perovskite solar cells with enhanced stability. We modify the surface of methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite by spin-coating its precursor solution in the presence of butylphosphonic acid 4-ammonium chloride. Morphological, structural and elemental analyses show that the phosphonic acid ammonium additive acts as a crosslink between neighbouring grains in the perovskite structure, through strong hydrogen bonding of the -PO(OH)2 and -NH3(+) terminal groups to the perovskite surface. The additives facilitate the incorporation of the perovskite within a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold, as well as the growth of a uniform perovskite layer at the surface, enhancing the material's photovoltaic performance from 8.8 to 16.7% as well as its resistance to moisture.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nat Chem
          Nature chemistry
          1755-4349
          1755-4330
          Sep 2015
          : 7
          : 9
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland.
          [2 ] Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China.
          Article
          nchem.2324
          10.1038/nchem.2324
          26291941

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