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      Effect of Nicotinamide Against Candida albicans

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          Nicotinamide (NAM) has a long history in clinical applications and can be safely used for treating various diseases. In recent years, NAM was found to exhibit antimicrobial activities, inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we investigated the activity of NAM against Candida albicans, one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens. Our results showed that NAM exhibited significant antifungal activity against C. albicans, including fluconazole-resistant isolates. NAM could also effectively suppress biofilm formation. In addition, NAM exhibited antifungal activity against non- Candida albicans species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Combination of NAM and fluconazole showed an even strong antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of NAM was further confirmed in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that NAM increased cell wall β-glucans exposure and chitin content while decreased mannan level. Furthermore, by screening the C. albicans homozygous deletion mutant library, the C. albicans mutant lacking GIN4, which encodes a septin regulatory protein kinase and is essential for the maintenance of cell wall integrity, was identified to be high sensitive to NAM. These findings suggested that NAM might exhibit antifungal activities through affecting cell wall organization.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Antifungal agents: mechanisms of action

          Clinical needs for novel antifungal agents have altered steadily with the rise and fall of AIDS-related mycoses, and the change in spectrum of fatal disseminated fungal infections that has accompanied changes in therapeutic immunosuppressive therapies. The search for new molecular targets for antifungals has generated considerable research using modern genomic approaches, so far without generating new agents for clinical use. Meanwhile, six new antifungal agents have just reached, or are approaching, the clinic. Three are new triazoles, with extremely broad antifungal spectra, and three are echinocandins, which inhibit synthesis of fungal cell wall polysaccharides--a new mode of action. In addition, the sordarins represent a novel class of agents that inhibit fungal protein synthesis. This review describes the targets and mechanisms of action of all classes of antifungal agents in clinical use or with clinical potential.
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            Genetic control of Candida albicans biofilm development.

            Candida species cause frequent infections owing to their ability to form biofilms - surface-associated microbial communities - primarily on implanted medical devices. Increasingly, mechanistic studies have identified the gene products that participate directly in the development of Candida albicans biofilms, as well as the regulatory circuitry and networks that control their expression and activity. These studies have uncovered new mechanisms and signals that govern C. albicans biofilm development and associated drug resistance, thus providing biological insight and therapeutic foresight.
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              Standardized method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans biofilms.

               P Rey,  U Walle,  Brian Wickes (2001)
              Candida albicans is implicated in many biomaterial-related infections. Typically, these infections are associated with biofilm formation. Cells in biofilms display phenotypic traits that are dramatically different from those of their free-floating planktonic counterparts and are notoriously resistant to antimicrobial agents. Consequently, biofilm-related infections are inherently difficult to treat and to fully eradicate with normal treatment regimens. Here, we report a rapid and highly reproducible microtiter-based colorimetric assay for the susceptibility testing of fungal biofilms, based on the measurement of metabolic activities of the sessile cells by using a formazan salt reduction assay. The assay was used for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of several C. albicans strains grown as biofilms against amphotericin B and fluconazole and the increased resistance of C. albicans biofilms against these antifungal agents was demonstrated. Because of its simplicity, compatibility with a widely available 96-well microplate platform, high throughput, and automation potential, we believe this assay represents a promising tool for the standardization of in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of fungal biofilms.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                26 March 2019
                : 10
                1Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                2School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University , Shanghai, China
                3Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University , Shanghai, China
                4Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Miguel Cacho Teixeira, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

                Reviewed by: Maurizio Sanguinetti, University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy; Siddharth Kaushal Tripathi, University of Mississippi, United States

                *Correspondence: YingYing Cao, caoyingying608@ 123456163.com Yuanying Jiang, 13761571578@ 123456163.com

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2019 Xing, Liao, Tan, Zhu, Jiang and Cao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 9, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology

                nicotinamide, candida albicans, drug resistance, fluconazole, gin4


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