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      Health risk behaviours of Palestinian youth: findings from a representative survey Translated title: Comportements à risque pour la santé chez les jeunes palestiniens : résultats d’une étude représentative Translated title: السلوكيات التي تنطوي على مخاطر صحية بين الشباب الفلسطينيين: نتائج مستمدة من مسح تمثيلي

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          Abstract

          Background:

          There is little systematic information about health risk behaviours among youth in Middle Eastern countries, leaving public health authorities unprepared to deal with emerging public health threats at a time of major social change.

          Aim:

          The Palestinian Youth Health Risk study investigates patterns of risk behaviours among Palestinian youth, their perceptions of the risks and benefits of such behaviours, and the relationship of exposure to violence with mental health and engagement in risk behaviours.

          Methods:

          We conducted a representative survey among 2500 individuals aged 15–24 years in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, permitting reliable comparison across sex and rural–urban divisions. A stratified 2-stage random sample was drawn from the 2007 population census, with strata formed by crossing the 12 governorates with urban, rural and refugee camp locations. Within strata, 208 survey clusters were sampled with probability proportional to size. Within each cluster, 14 households with youth of the appropriate age were sampled.

          Results:

          Among youth aged 20–24 years, 22.4% of males and 11.6% of females reported trying alcohol; 10.5% of males and 4.3% of females reported trying drugs. Almost one quarter of unmarried youth aged 20–24 years reported any sexual experience. Tobacco use is high, even among younger youth (45.4% of males and 21.2% of females aged 15–19 smoke). Risk behaviours are higher among males, older youth and in urban areas and refugee camps.

          Conclusion:

          While smoking is of particular concern, prevention outreach for all behaviours should be directed at subgroups and areas identified as highest risk.

          Résumé

          Contexte :

          Il existe peu de données systématiques sur les comportements à risque pour la santé chez les jeunes au Moyen-Orient. Les autorités de santé publique ne sont donc pas préparées aux menaces de santé publique émergentes en période de changement social majeur.

          Objectif:

          L’Étude des risques sanitaires chez les jeunes palestiniens examine les schémas comportementaux à risque parmi les jeunes palestiniens, leurs perceptions des risques et des bénéfices tirés de tels comportements, la relation entre l’exposition à la violence et la santé mentale, et l’adoption de comportements à risque.

          Méthodes:

          Nous avons réalisé une enquête représentative auprès de 2500 individus âgés de 15 à 24 ans en Cisjordanie et à Jérusalem-Est, ce qui nous a permis de procéder à une comparaison fiable en fonction du sexe ainsi qu’entre zones rurale et zones urbaines. Un échantillon aléatoire stratifié à deux niveaux a été prélevé dans le recensement de population de 2007, avec des strates formées en sélectionnant les zones urbaines, rurales, et les camps de réfugiés au sein des 12 gouvernorats. Dans les strates, 208 foyers d’étude ont été échantillonnés, avec une probabilité proportionnelle à la taille. Au sein de chaque foyer, 14 ménages comptant des jeunes ayant l’âge approprié ont été échantillonnés.

          Résultats:

          Parmi les jeunes âgés de 20 à 24 ans, 22,4 % des garçons et 11,6 % des filles ont rapporté avoir déjà essayé l’alcool, et 10,5 % des garçons et 4,3 % des filles ont signalé avoir déjà essayé les drogues. Près d’un quart des jeunes célibataires âgés de 20 à 24 ans ont rapporté n’avoir eu aucune expérience sexuelle. Le tabagisme est très élevé, même chez les plus jeunes (45,4 % des garçons et 21,2 % des jeunes filles âgés de 15 à 19 ans fument). Les comportements à risque sont plus élevés parmi les garçons, chez les jeunes plus âgés, dans les zones urbaines et dans les camps de réfugiés.

          Conclusion :

          Si le tabagisme est particulièrement préoccupant, des activités de prévention pour l’ensemble des comportements devraient être menées dans les sous-groupes et les zones identifiés à haut risque.

          الخلاصة:

          الخلفية:

          لا تتوفر سوى معلومات منهجية ضئيلة عن كثير من السلوكيات التي تنطوي على مخاطر صحية بين شباب الشرق الأوسط.

          الهدف:

          توفّر هذه الدراسة تقديرات لمستويات وأنماط السلوكيات الخطرة بين الشباب الفلسطينيين استناداً إلى مسح ذو طابع تمثيلي واسع النطاق.

          طرق البحث:

          استُهدفت عينة من 2500 فرداً في الفئة العمرية ١٥-٢٤ عاماً في الضفة الغربية والقدس الشرقية لإجراء مسح ذي طابع تمثيلي.

          النتائج:

          أفاد 22.4% من الشبان الذكور في الفئة العمرية 20–24 عاماً، و11.6% من الشابات بتجربة المشروبات الكحولية) 8.1% و3.6% بالنسبة للشبان والشابات في الفئة العمرية 15–19 عاماً(. وأفاد 10.5% من الشبان في الفئة العمرية 20–24 عاماً و4.3% من الشابات بتجربة المخدرات) 3.8% و1.6% بالنسبة للشبان والشابات في الفئة العمرية 15–19 عاماً(. كما أفاد 9.3% من الشبان غير المتزوجين و6.7% من الشابات غير المتزوجات في الفئة العمرية 20–24 عاماً بممارسة الجنس، ولئن أفاد نحو ربع هذه النسبة من كلا الجنسين بعدم وجود أي خبرة جنسية لديهم. وتبيّن ارتفاع مستوى تعاطي التبغ بصورة بالغة، حتى بين الشباب الأصغر سناً) 45.5% من الذكور و21.2% من الإناث في الفئة العمرية 15–19 عاماً هم من المدخنين(، كما تبيّن انتشار العنف المتبادل بين الأفراد) الشجار (بصورة كبيرة. وتبيّن ارتفاع مستوى السلوكيات الخطرة فيما بين الشبان والشباب الأكبر سناً وفي المناطق الحضرية) لا سيَّما القدس (وفي مخيمات اللاجئين مقارنة بالمناطق الريفية. كما تبدو مستويات انخراط الشباب الفلسطينيين من المناطق الأخرى في تعاطي الكحوليات والمخدرات وممارسة الأنشطة الجنسية، بما في ذلك الجماع، أقل من غيرهم في جميع النتائج ،ولكن ينقلب الوضع فيما يتعلق بالتدخين والعنف المتبادل بين الأفراد.

          الاستنتاجات:

          يمثل التدخين شاغلاً مهماً، إلا أنه ينبغي توجيه أنشطة التوعية على الوقاية من جميع السلوكيات الخطرة إلى المجموعات الفرعية والمناطق التي يتم تحديدها باعتبارها عالية المخاطر.

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          Most cited references31

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          Peer influences on college drinking: A review of the research

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            Trends and affordability of cigarette prices: ample room for tax increases and related health gains.

            Increasing the price of tobacco products is arguably the most effective method of curbing the prevalence and consumption of tobacco products. Price increases would reduce the global burden of disease brought about by tobacco consumption. To compare cigarette price data from more than 80 countries using varying methods, examine trends in prices and affordability during the 1990s, and explore various policy implications pertaining to tobacco prices. March 2001 cigarette price data from the Economist Intelligence Unit are used to compare cigarette prices across countries. To facilitate comparison and to assess affordability, prices are presented in US dollars, purchasing power parity (PPP) units using the Big Mac index as an indicator of PPP and in terms of minutes of labour required to purchase a pack of cigarettes. Annual real percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 2000 and annual changes in the minutes of labour required to buy cigarettes between 1991 and 2000 are also calculated to examine trends. Cigarette prices tend to be higher in wealthier countries and in countries that have strong tobacco control programmes. On the other hand, minutes of labour required to purchase cigarettes vary vastly between countries. Trends between 1990 and 2000 in real prices and minutes of labour indicate, with some exceptions, that cigarettes have become more expensive in most developed countries but more affordable in many developing countries. However, in the UK, despite recent increases in price, cigarettes are still more affordable than they were in the 1960s. The results suggest that there is ample room to increase tobacco prices through taxation. In too many countries, cigarette prices have failed to keep up with increases in the general price level of goods and services, rendering them more affordable in 2000 than they were at the beginning of the decade. Opportunities to increase government revenue and improve health through reduced consumption brought about by higher prices have been overlooked in many countries.
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              A meta-analysis of teen cigarette smoking cessation.

              This article presents a meta-analysis of 48 teen cigarette smoking cessation studies, the 1st meta-analysis of its kind. The authors conducted searches of electronic databases and unpublished manuscripts from 1970 to 2003. Fifty contextual elements were coded from each article. A weighted least squares random effects method was used to pool results from individual study net effects estimates. Multilevel random coefficients modeling was applied to control for the intrastudy variation. The primary outcome for the present analysis was quit rate. Data were entered as intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rates (not compliance sample rates). Overall treatment effect size and treatment effect sizes as a function of program content, modality, number of sessions, and length of follow-up were examined. Across studies, program conditions, compared with control conditions, appeared to give smokers a 2.90% (95% confidence interval = 1.47-4.35%) absolute advantage in quitting, increasing the probability of quitting by approximately 46% (9.14% vs. 6.24%). Relatively higher quit rates were found in programs that included a motivation enhancement component, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and social influence approaches. Also, relatively higher quit rates were found in school-based clinic and classroom modalities. Furthermore, relatively higher quit rates were found for programs consisting of at least 5 quit sessions. Data also indicated that the effects were maintained at short-term (1 year or less) and longer term (longer than 1 year) follow-ups. Much more teen smoking cessation research is needed, but teen smoking cessation programming is effective, and the present study provides a framework to move forward.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                9608387
                21198
                East Mediterr Health J
                East Mediterr Health J
                Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit
                1020-3397
                1687-1634
                11 June 2022
                03 May 2018
                03 May 2018
                18 June 2022
                : 24
                : 2
                : 127-136
                Affiliations
                [1 ]RAND Corporation, Santa. Monica, California, United States of America.
                [2 ]Juzoor for Health and Social Development, Ramallah, West Bank.
                [3 ]United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), East Jerusalem, Palestine.
                [4 ]Al Quds University, Abu-Dis, West Bank.
                [5 ]Palestinian National Institute of Public Health, West Bank.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Peter Glick: pglick@ 123456rand.org
                Article
                NIHMS1814953
                10.26719/2018.24.2.127
                9206082
                29748941
                bf4b647b-c1b7-4409-a20d-2625bdf4b4d4

                This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

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                youth,health risk behaviours,palestine,survey
                youth, health risk behaviours, palestine, survey

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