Generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) is necessary for both physiology and pathology. An imbalance between endogenous oxidants and antioxidants causes oxidative stress, contributing to vascular dysfunction. The ROS-induced activation of transcription factors and proinflammatory genes increases inflammation. This phenomenon is of crucial importance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), because atherosclerosis is one of the critical factors of their cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increased mortality. The effect of ROS disrupts the excretory function of each section of the nephron. It prevents the maintenance of intra-systemic homeostasis and leads to the accumulation of metabolic products. Renal regulatory mechanisms, such as tubular glomerular feedback, myogenic reflex in the supplying arteriole, and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, are also affected. It makes it impossible for the kidney to compensate for water–electrolyte and acid–base disturbances, which progress further in the mechanism of positive feedback, leading to a further intensification of oxidative stress. As a result, the progression of CKD is observed, with a spectrum of complications such as malnutrition, calcium phosphate abnormalities, atherosclerosis, and anemia. This review aimed to show the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal impairment, with a particular emphasis on its influence on the most common disturbances that accompany CKD.