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      Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

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          Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a leading cause of kidney disease worldwide. The presumed etiology of primary FSGS is a plasma factor with responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy and a risk of recurrence after kidney transplant–important disease characteristics. In contrast, adaptive FSGS is associated with excessive nephron workload due to increased body size, reduced nephron capacity, or single glomerular hyperfiltration associated with certain diseases. Additional etiologies are now recognized as drivers of FSGS: high-penetrance genetic FSGS due to mutations in one of nearly 40 genes, virus-associated FSGS, and medication-associated FSGS. Emerging data support the identification of a sixth category: APOL1 risk allele–associated FSGS in individuals with sub-Saharan ancestry. The classification of a particular patient with FSGS relies on integration of findings from clinical history, laboratory testing, kidney biopsy, and in some patients, genetic testing. The kidney biopsy can be helpful, with clues provided by features on light microscopy ( e.g., glomerular size, histologic variant of FSGS, microcystic tubular changes, and tubular hypertrophy), immunofluorescence ( e.g., to rule out other primary glomerulopathies), and electron microscopy ( e.g., extent of podocyte foot process effacement, podocyte microvillous transformation, and tubuloreticular inclusions). A complete assessment of renal histology is important for establishing the parenchymal setting of segmental glomerulosclerosis, distinguishing FSGS associated with one of many other glomerular diseases from the clinical-pathologic syndrome of FSGS. Genetic testing is beneficial in particular clinical settings. Identifying the etiology of FSGS guides selection of therapy and provides prognostic insight. Much progress has been made in our understanding of FSGS, but important outstanding issues remain, including the identity of the plasma factor believed to be responsible for primary FSGS, the value of routine implementation of genetic testing, and the identification of more effective and less toxic therapeutic interventions for FSGS.

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          ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing.

          In clinical exome and genome sequencing, there is a potential for the recognition and reporting of incidental or secondary findings unrelated to the indication for ordering the sequencing but of medical value for patient care. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recently published a policy statement on clinical sequencing that emphasized the importance of alerting the patient to the possibility of such results in pretest patient discussions, clinical testing, and reporting of results. The ACMG appointed a Working Group on Incidental Findings in Clinical Exome and Genome Sequencing to make recommendations about responsible management of incidental findings when patients undergo exome or genome sequencing. This Working Group conducted a year-long consensus process, including an open forum at the 2012 Annual Meeting and review by outside experts, and produced recommendations that have been approved by the ACMG Board. Specific and detailed recommendations, and the background and rationale for these recommendations, are described herein. The ACMG recommends that laboratories performing clinical sequencing seek and report mutations of the specified classes or types in the genes listed here. This evaluation and reporting should be performed for all clinical germline (constitutional) exome and genome sequencing, including the "normal" of tumor-normal subtractive analyses in all subjects, irrespective of age but excluding fetal samples. We recognize that there are insufficient data on penetrance and clinical utility to fully support these recommendations, and we encourage the creation of an ongoing process for updating these recommendations at least annually as further data are collected.
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            Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans.

            African Americans have higher rates of kidney disease than European Americans. Here, we show that, in African Americans, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertension-attributed end-stage kidney disease (H-ESKD) are associated with two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene on chromosome 22 {FSGS odds ratio = 10.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.0 to 18.4]; H-ESKD odds ratio = 7.3 (95% CI 5.6 to 9.5)}. The two APOL1 variants are common in African chromosomes but absent from European chromosomes, and both reside within haplotypes that harbor signatures of positive selection. ApoL1 (apolipoprotein L-1) is a serum factor that lyses trypanosomes. In vitro assays revealed that only the kidney disease-associated ApoL1 variants lysed Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. We speculate that evolution of a critical survival factor in Africa may have contributed to the high rates of renal disease in African Americans.
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              The incidence of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide: a systematic review of the literature.

              Little is known about the worldwide variation in incidence of primary glomerulonephritis (GN). The objective of this review was to critically appraise studies of incidence published in 1980-2010 so that an overall view of trends of these diseases can be found. This would provide important information for determining changes in rates and understanding variations between countries. All relevant papers found through searches of Medline, Embase and ScienceDirect were critically appraised and an assessment was made of the reliability of the reported incidence data. This review includes 40 studies of incidence of primary GN from Europe, North and South America, Canada, Australasia and the Middle East. Rates for the individual types of disease were found to be in adults, 0.2/100,000/year for membrano-proliferative GN, 0.2/100,000/year for mesangio-proliferative GN, 0.6/100,000/year for minimal change disease, 0.8/100,000/year for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 1.2/100,000/year for membranous nephropathy and 2.5/100,000/year for IgA nephropathy. Rates were lower in children at around 0.1/100,000/year with the exception of minimal change disease where incidence was reported to be 2.0/100,000/year in Caucasian children with higher rates in Arabian children (9.2/100,000/year) and Asian children (6.2-15.6/100,000/year). This study found that incidence rates of primary GN vary between 0.2/100,000/year and 2.5/100,000/year. The incidence of IgA nephropathy is at least 2.5/100,000/year in adults; this disease can exist subclinically and is therefore only detected by chance in some patients. In addition, referral policies for diagnostic biopsy vary between countries. This will affect the incidence rates found.

                Author and article information

                Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                March 2017
                February 27 2017
                : 12
                : 3
                : 502-517
                [1 ]Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; and
                [2 ]Kidney Disease Section, Kidney Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
                © 2017


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