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      Lung cancer in women in 21th century

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          Abstract

          Lung cancer is the first cause of death from malignant disease. The distressing epidemiological data show the increasing female to male incidence ratio for this tumor. A high incidence of lung cancer in never smokers with importance of environmental agents makes a problem among women. Adenocarcinoma (ADC) is noted in women with increasing rate and ethnic background impacts female lung cancer with differences in the incidence of genetic aberrations. The conception of different hormonal status is taken into consideration as potential explanation of variant cancer biology and clinical manifestation in women and men. The impact of 17-β-estradiol, estrogen receptors, aromatase expression, pituitary sex hormones receptors in carcinogenesis with relation between estrogens and genetic aberrations are investigated. The response to newest therapies among female is also different than in men. This overview summarizes currently available evidence on the specificity of female lung cancer and presents the direction of necessary studies.

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          Most cited references84

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Squamous-Cell Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

            New England Journal of Medicine, 373(2), 123-135
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              Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening.

              (2011)
              The aggressive and heterogeneous nature of lung cancer has thwarted efforts to reduce mortality from this cancer through the use of screening. The advent of low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) altered the landscape of lung-cancer screening, with studies indicating that low-dose CT detects many tumors at early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was conducted to determine whether screening with low-dose CT could reduce mortality from lung cancer. From August 2002 through April 2004, we enrolled 53,454 persons at high risk for lung cancer at 33 U.S. medical centers. Participants were randomly assigned to undergo three annual screenings with either low-dose CT (26,722 participants) or single-view posteroanterior chest radiography (26,732). Data were collected on cases of lung cancer and deaths from lung cancer that occurred through December 31, 2009. The rate of adherence to screening was more than 90%. The rate of positive screening tests was 24.2% with low-dose CT and 6.9% with radiography over all three rounds. A total of 96.4% of the positive screening results in the low-dose CT group and 94.5% in the radiography group were false positive results. The incidence of lung cancer was 645 cases per 100,000 person-years (1060 cancers) in the low-dose CT group, as compared with 572 cases per 100,000 person-years (941 cancers) in the radiography group (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.23). There were 247 deaths from lung cancer per 100,000 person-years in the low-dose CT group and 309 deaths per 100,000 person-years in the radiography group, representing a relative reduction in mortality from lung cancer with low-dose CT screening of 20.0% (95% CI, 6.8 to 26.7; P=0.004). The rate of death from any cause was reduced in the low-dose CT group, as compared with the radiography group, by 6.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 13.6; P=0.02). Screening with the use of low-dose CT reduces mortality from lung cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; National Lung Screening Trial ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00047385.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Thorac Dis
                J Thorac Dis
                JTD
                Journal of Thoracic Disease
                AME Publishing Company
                2072-1439
                2077-6624
                August 2020
                August 2020
                : 12
                : 8
                : 4398-4410
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases and Allergy, Medical University of Warsaw , Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes

                Contributions: (I) Conception and design: J Domagala-Kulawik; (II) Administrative support: None; (III) Provision of study materials or patients: None; (IV) Collection and assembly of data: None; (V) Data analysis and interpretation: None; (VI) Manuscript writing: All authors; (VII) Final approval of manuscript: All authors.

                Correspondence to: Prof. Joanna Domagala-Kulawik. Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases and Allergy, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1a, 02 097 Warsaw, Poland. Email: jdomagala@ 123456wum.edu.pl .
                Article
                jtd-12-08-4398
                10.21037/jtd-20-287
                7475544
                32944353
                c234f4bb-4e24-4f47-a842-72743b032e47
                2020 Journal of Thoracic Disease. All rights reserved.

                Open Access Statement: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits the non-commercial replication and distribution of the article with the strict proviso that no changes or edits are made and the original work is properly cited (including links to both the formal publication through the relevant DOI and the license). See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

                History
                : 08 January 2020
                : 08 June 2020
                Categories
                Review Article

                lung cancer,women,adenocarcinoma (adc),estrogen,egfr mutation

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